Fond du Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)
The Fond du Lac Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation in Minnesota.
- Established -- 30 Sep 1854
- Agency (BIA) --
- Principal tribes -- Fond du Lac Band of Chippewa of Lake Superior
- Population -- 2010 is 1,655
History[edit | edit source]
The Fond du Lac Reservation was established by Treaty of Sept. 30, 1854 (X, 1109) and an act of May 26, 1872 (XVII, 190). Grand Portage Reservation was also established on September 30, 1854, through the same treaty.
Some of the Chippewas from the Fond Du Lac Band of Chippewas, probably lived in Wisconsin. They were relocated to the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa White Earth Reservation. That probably began in the 1860s but increased during the 1880s and 1890s. In 1901, the population of the Removal Fond Du Lac Chippewas at the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation of northern Minnesota, was 100.
Fond Du Lac Reservation is probably a part of the 11 million acre (17,187 sq. mi. or 44,515 sq. km.) Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation of northern Minnesota that chiefs Little Shell III and Red Thunder, refused to cede in 1892.
In 1901, the Indian population of Fond Du Lac Reservation was 771. In 1930, the Indian population of Fond Du Lac Reservation was 1,298. Fond Du Lac Reservation gained in an Indian population between 1901 and 1930, at around 90%. According to the 2010 census, the Indian population of Fond Du Lac Reservation is 1,655. Between 1930 and 2010, the Indian population at Fond Du Lac Reservation increased by almost 600. Between 2000 and 2010, the Indian population increased at Fond Du Lac Reservation by 302, or by nearly 25%.
After the Indian Reorganization Act was accepted at Fond Du Lac Reservation, the Indian population increased at a much slower rate. One of the goals of the Indian Reorganization Act was to relocate Indians from Reservations, to white communities and to assimilate them into communal societies. Reservation leaders are probably doing positive projects at the Fond Du Lac Reservation to keep their citizens on the reservation to preserve their language and culture. It is important that the culture and language of the First Nation peoples be preserved and passed on to subsequent generations and viewed as the important history of the United States that it is. .
Communities[edit | edit source]
There are at least six Chippewa communities within Fond Du Lac Reservation. With an eye toward the preservation of the culture and the language of the American Indians, the reservation leaders should expand Indian settlements at Fond Du Lac. It would be desirable for them to issue a name for each of the communities and financially support each one so they can accept jurisdiction over their communities borders or city limits. It would help to use as little land as possible for community growth. Place hydroponic farms (greenhouse farming) within each community so employment is available and safe food (even tropical food) is grown. Form fishing and hunting societies which follow Federal and State laws and which will function as new employment opportunities for members of the tribes.
Records[edit | edit source]
Land Records[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Minnesota Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
- Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142i. Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
- Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
- Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
- Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972. WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
- United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
- United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
- United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 3rd ed. WorldCat 244771132; FHL book 970.1 W146a 2009.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.