Gull Lake Band of Chippewa Indians
Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]
History[edit | edit source]
Historically, the Gull Lake Chippewas have lived in the Gull Lake region of Minnesota, since at least the early 16th century. Prophecy played an important role in their daily affairs. They combated the Dakota People who may have lived in that region before them. Dakota People did not cooperate with the prophecy weary Chippewas and eagerly formed an alliance with both the English and French who supplied them with guns. Those guns were why the Dakota People were capable of preventing the Chippewas from completely subjugating them. After the whites reached treaty agreements with the Gull Lake Chippewas, who are really the Pillager Chippewas and Pembina Chippewas, land cessions followed and a large Reservation was set aside for both the Otter Tail Lake Chippewas and Gull Lake Chippewas.
Below is a map of the Otter Tail Lake Chippewa Reservation and the Gull Lake Chippewa Reservation. The Otter Tail Lake Chippewa Reservation has the number 269, while the Gull Lake Chippewa Reservation has the number 268. After the United States broke treaty promises, a new Gull Lake Chippewa Reservation was created. You'll notice it borders the old Gull Lake Reservation on the north. The Chippewa Otter Tail Lake Reservation has never been resolved. According to white historians, no Indians either lived at or relocated to the Otter Tail Lake Reservation. However, it is well known that the Otter Tail Lake Chippewas were living around Otter Tail Lake well into the 1870s. Look at the map carefully. Otter Tail Lake is within the northwestern part of the Chippewa Otter Tail Lake Reservation.
Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]
October 13, 1846: A treaty was signed with the Gull Lake Chippewas who are also known as the Winnebago. A large Reservation was created for them in Minnesota. Gull Lake Chippewa Reservation is situated on the northeastern border of that Reservation. They relocated to the north from the Chippewas Iowa Reservations.
February 22, 1855: A new Reservation was created for the Gull Lake Chippewas which bordered their old Reservation to the south. More about that is below.
February 27, 1855: Chippewa leaders supposedly ceded the large Reservation they shared with the Otter Tail Lake Chippewas who are also known as the Menominee. Most relocated to the Chippewas Gull Lake Reservation which bordered the old Reservation. Another Reservation was set aside for them further south. It is known as the Blue Earth Reservation of Minnesota.
February 21, 1863: Another treaty ceded the Blue Earth Reservation and created a new Chippewa Reservation in South Dakota. Today, it is known as the Crow Creek and Lower Brule Reservations.
March 8, 1865: Chippewa leaders supposedly ceded their Reservation in South Dakota where the Crow Creek and Lower Brule Reservations are located. They were set aside land in Nebraska. They were set aside the northern portion of the Omaha Reservation.
1899: It was reported in the press, that many Gull Lake Chippewas who continued to live around Gull Lake and the other lakes near Gull Lake, refused to follow Minnesota game hunting laws. They warned the whites they would fight, if they tried to stop them from fishing and hunting. They either participated in the 1898 Leech Lake Rebellion or were influenced by it.
1906: A census for that year at White Earth Reservation, reported that the Gull Lake Chippewas made up 348 of the White Earth Reservation population of 5,122.
1927: It was reported by white residents of Nisswa, that some Gull Lake Chippewas continued to live near Gull Lake, very near Round Lake Trading Post.
Brief History[edit | edit source]
Gull Lake Chippewas are a mixture of Chippewas who lived in the Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin region, and also Minnesota. Through war and migrations caused by prophecy, large numbers of Chippewas relocated to the Iowa, Minnesota, and Missouri region. Large Reservations were set aside for them in Iowa, with small areas of those Reservations located in extreme southern Minnesota and northwestern Missouri.
On June 5, 1846, the United States broke treaty promises and eradicated the 5 million acre Chippewa Reservation located primarily in Iowa. Later that same year, the United States tried to halt the prophecy weary Chippewas from migrating west. A treaty was signed on October 13, 1846 which promised the Winnebago (they are also known as the Winnibigoshish) Chippewas, an 800,000 acre Reservation in central Minnesota. It is the Gull Lake Chippewa Reservation with the number 268. That promise only lasted a few years
These Chippewas participated in the 1862 Minnesota Indian War. After the war, they were relocated to their South Dakota Reservation. Most, however, moved north to the Gull Lake Reservation which is a part of White Earth Reservation, then to Leech Lake Reservation where they are known as the Winnibigoshish. And the Otter Tail Lake Chippewas also moved to the White Earth Reservation which is 40 miles north of Otter Tail Lake.
Reservations[edit | edit source]
Crow Creek Reservation of South Dakota
Leech Lake Reservation of Minnesota
Lower Brule Reservation of South Dakota
White Earth Reservation of Minnesota
Winnebago Reservation of Nebraska
Additional References to the History of the Tribe[edit | edit source]
Records[edit | edit source]
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
- Allotment records
- Annuity rolls
- Census records
- Health records
- School census and records
- Vital records
Treaties[edit | edit source]
October 13, 1846 Treaty
February 22, 1855 Treaty
February 27, 1855 Treaty
February 21, 1863 Treaty
March 8, 1865 Treaty
Important Websites[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published