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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Minnesota Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Minnesota Gotoarrow.png Saulteaux

History[edit | edit source]

The Saulteaux Indians are a branch of the Ojibwa people (aka Algonquin, Anishinabe, Bungee, Chippewa, Little Shell, Nez Perce, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Pembina, Saginaw, Sac, and Sauk). Their land was located just east of Lake Superior when the English and French first met them in the early 17th century. It was probably the French who named these eastern Lake Superior Chippewa District people the Saulteaux ("People of the Falls" in French). (In Montana, the Gros Ventre are known as the People of the Falls or People of the Waterfalls or simply the Waterfalls People or Falls People. They are the Chippewas who moved from the west to the east, after the Europeans began to settle the land. They are also the Montana Saulteaux. They originally lived in the Great Falls, Montana region and still do.) The correct pronunciation of Saulteaux is Soo as in "Sioux" and toe as in "your big toe." "Sootoe."

Their original land was located in the immediate surrounding region of Sault Ste. Marie. Ojibwa authors from the 19th century wrote about Chippewas from the west forcing their way to the east, after the Europeans began to settle in the area. According to native American writer George Copway, the Chippewas from northern Wisconsin and Minnesota settled the region where Sault Ste. Marie is. They then worked their way further east. Copway wrote that these Chippewa settlers colonized the region east of Lake Superior and east of Lake Huron, after 1634 and 1635. He also wrote that the Ojibwa east of Lake Superior considered the Minnesota region to be the land of their forefathers.

Not very long after the western Chippewas colonized the region east of Lakes Superior and Huron, they began to move westward. It was their Seven Fires Prophecy that caused them to leave for western lands. Among them were the Amikwa Chippewas who are also known as the Nez Perce. They are the Nez Perce of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Amikwa means Beavers in Anishinabe. The Beaver Tribe including the Kaska, Sekani and Tahltan of British Columbia, are the Amikwa Chippewas.

According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Athabascan People or Dene People including the Apache, Chipewyan, and Navajo, are Algonquin and speak Algonquian. You'll find the information about the Amikwa Chippewas at their website.

From the Sault Ste. Marie region, the Saulteaux Indians of the Lake Superior region followed an old road north of Lake Superior which led to where Winnipeg, Manitoba is now situated. This same road led into what is now Saskatchewan then to what is now Edmonton, Alberta. It then branched off to where the Saulteau First Nations are located in British Columbia. That is where Moberly Lake is. Before the road reached Moberly Lake, it branched off where Dawson Creek, British Columbia is. It led up to where Fort Nelson, British Columbia is now.

Another branch of this same old road branched off near Dawson Creek and extended into central British Columbia. From there, it led to where Prince Rupert, British Columbia is.

Other branches of the Ojibwa Nation are the Little Shell, Pembina, and Saginaw. The Saulteaux lived north of them, excepting the Pembina who historians probably classify as being Saulteaux. To identify the Saulteaux Indians, information about the Little Shell, Pembina, and Saginaw must be separate so the information about the Saulteaux can be distinct.

The Saulteaux District bordered the Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians District and the Little Shell Band of Chippewa Indians, Montana District. It starts just north of Lake Huron and includes land to the south in southern Ontario and Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. It includes northern Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan and extends into Alberta. It includes land in northern Montana, east of the Rocky Mountains. It also included much of British Columbia, particularly northern British Columbia. Another Chippewa District was probably located in southern British Columbia.

Only Reservations and Reserves, in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Northwest Territories, Yukon, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oklahoma will be included. Historians have written that the Cree Indians made no use of totems or clans. If that was correct it will signify that they are not Algonquian. However, it is known that the Swampy Cree and Woodland Cree used totems or clans. Woodland Cree are obviously Saulteaux. Their history is a fragmented one. 

17th century:[edit | edit source]

As a result of the white settlements into the area east of Lake Huron, many were sent east to support the eastern Chippewas in the wars against the settlers and their Indian allies. By the 1660s, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's had forced their way east of Lake Huron. They began to drive the settlers and their Indian allies east. They then colonized the region by sending settlers east, south, and north. They are known as the Wabanaki or Abenaki, Shawnee, and Chipewyan. Not Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi. However, in the 16th century, an earlier migration of Chippewa's from the Montana region, had already forced their way to this same region. It was not as massive an invasion as the 17th century invasion. 

18th century:[edit | edit source]

Wars between the First Nations Peoples and the European settlers became more frequent and more deadly. By 1795 (after the Battle of Fallen Timbers) the Saulteaux living east of Lake Superior and north of Lake Huron, began leaving the area. Some migrated up to northern Quebec. Most migrated north of Lake Superior then to the west.

19th century:[edit | edit source]

Many Saulteaux Indians had migrated into northwestern Ontario then southern Manitoba. They probably participated in the Pemmican War which was a part of the War of 1812. By the 1860s, they were realizing they had to migrate again. Under the leadership of Saulteaux leaders Chief Yellow Quill, his sub-chief Chief Kinistin, Chief John Smith and his brother Chief James Smith, the diasporas commenced. From southern Manitoba, they migrated into southeastern and central Saskatchewan. Other Chippewa leaders who followed prophecy and led migrations were Chief Kahkhagooguns and Chief Napaneegwan. Both leaders did as instructed and led the Saulteaux people to northern British Columbia, from southern Manitoba.

Chief Kinistin led many Saulteaux people up to northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan.  They merged with the Chippewa's native to those regions. They also migrated into Alberta then British Columbia and the Northwest Territories, including what is now Nunavut.

Leaders:[edit | edit source]

Chief Pontiac:[edit | edit source]

He was an important Sauteaux Ojibwa leader of the eastern Great Lakes region. His influence ranged from north of Lake Superior, to the southeastern part of what is now the United States. His family was an important family. His father was from the military totem of the Ojibwas, known as the Noka (probably short for Nakawe); his mother was from the merchant totem of the Ojibwas, who are known historically as the Odawah or Ottawa.

During the early 1750s, Chief Pontiac, also known as Obwandiag, Bwan-diak and other similar-sounding names, became an important Saulteaux Ojibwa military commander early in the 7 years war. By the early 1760s, chief Pontiac was the highest ranking Saulteaux Ojibwa military commander.

Chief Minavavana:[edit | edit source]

He was an important leader during the 1754-1763 War. Though not as powerful a leader as chief Pontiac, chief Minavavana held his own. In 1763, chief Minavavana led a force of Saulteaux Ojibwa soldiers against the white fort at Michilimackinac and captured the fort. Chief Minavavana kept up the war with the European invaders and was killed by the English in 1770.

Chief Agashaway:[edit | edit source]

He was of near the same age as chief Pontiac. Chief Ag-ga-sha-way was a Saulteaux Ojibwa from the Eastern Great Lakes region. His home was in the southern Michigan, southern Ontario, and Ohio region. Historians claim he was Odawah or Ottawa but they are a totem of the Saulteaux Ojibwa People. Since he was a military commander, he was not from the merchant totem of the Saulteaux Ojibwa's. He was from the Saulteaux Ojibwa military totem who are the  Noka or Nakawe.

He fought in the 1754-1763 War.  He does not show up in history until the commencement of the so called Revolutionary War, in 1774. He supposedly granted an island to the English in 1774 yet that may be misleading. The island was not far from Fort Detroit which means chief Agashaway was preparing to lay siege to Fort Detroit. Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders were preparing to war upon the settlers who were letting known their intentions of trying to advance west again.

It is believed that chief Egushawa or Agashaway, was possibly related to chief Pontiac. Chief Agashaway may have been the highest ranking Saulteaux Ojibwa military commander during the 1774-1794 War. He may have sent the Indian soldiers to the Virginia region to fight the settlers, in 1774. After the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, European settlers crept into the Kentucky region. Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders knew what their future foretold and were anxious to retaliate.

Saulteaux Ojibwa soldiers killed and took captive, many of the Europeans. In 1774, the settlers rose up in open rebellion. It's known as the American Revolutionary War. Chief Agashaway led the war from the Michigan region. The strategy of the Saulteaux Ojibwa military was to kill as many of the settlers as possible. Both civilian and military. Saulteaux Ojibwa military commanders sent their soldiers east to fight. Their weapons were bows and arrows.

However, they used gun powder during their wars. They probably learned early on how to make their own gun powder. They may have had cannons yet they knew gun powder could be used in other ways. So during the 1774-1794 War, they frequently attacked locations where the settlers had ample supplies of gun powder. They did so for two reasons. To increase their gun powder supplies and decrease the gun powder supplies of their enemies.

Chief Agashaway led the Saulteaux Ojibwa's during the duration of the 1774-1794 War. During the latter part of the war, chief Agashaway continued to lead Saulteaux Ojibwa soldiers into battle. He led them during the November 4, 1791 St. Clairs defeat which is also known as the Battle of the Wabash.

During the August 20, 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, chief Agashaway was seriously wounded. He knew during the latter stages of the long 1774-1794 War, that his people were tired of the conflict. Some of them began to act on their own. They allowed chief Blue Jacket to become one of their principle military commanders. It enraged the Saulteaux Ojibwa's. Chief Blue Jacket was European. He raised Tecumseh.

Shortly after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, chief Agashaway agreed to sign the peace treaty with the English or the English colony of the United States. He was among the last of the Saulteaux Ojibwa military leaders to agree to peace. After signing the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, chief Agashaway died. He may have died from his injuries sustained during the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Chief Sassaba:[edit | edit source]

An important Saulteaux Ojibwa military commander during the War of 1812, chief Sassaba is known historically for his participation in the War of 1812. He was one of the Saulteaux Ojibwa military commanders at the Battle of the Thames. Tecumseh, who was a spy who worked for the settlers, supposedly fought and died in the Battle of the Thames. If he was actually killed in that battle, he was killed by Indians.

Chief Sassaba may have been the actual military commander of the Saulteaux Ojibwa soldiers at the Battle of the Thames and possibly the principle Saulteaux Ojibwa military commander during the War of 1812. Not much historical information about chief Sassaba is available. Historians tend to ignore Ojibwa leaders. They even consider chief Pontiac to have been an Ottawa leader rather than an Ojibwa leader.

Chief Sassaba survived the War of 1812. In 1822, chief Sassaba was canoeing with his family and drowned with his family after an accident.

Chief Peguis:[edit | edit source]

He was also an important Saulteaux Ojibwa leader during the War of 1812. He was born in 1774. They think he was born near Sault Ste. Marie. He later moved to northern Minnesota then up to Manitoba. During the War of 1812, the English invaded southern Manitoba and established the Red River Colony. It is not known if chief Peguis was a Saulteaux Ojibwa military commander during that conflict. Historians write a descriptive portrait of chief Peguis as being sympathetic towards the settlers.

Chief Peguis is thought to have been a mixed blood. Cuthbert Grant was a mixed blood. After they established fortified settlements in southern Manitoba, Saulteaux Ojibwa soldiers were sent to attack them. After the 1816 Battle of Seven Oaks, the leaders of the Red River Colony knew they had to cooperate with the far more numerous Saulteaux Ojibwa's who surrounded them. In 1817, chief Peguis signed the Selkirk Treaty. It ended the conflict in southern Manitoba.

Chief Peguis and the other Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders, allowed the settlers to stay in the south of Manitoba. It was a decision chief Peguis later on regretted. For nearly 65 years, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's subjugated the white invaders who lived in southern Manitoba. Some even lived in Minnesota, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan. In 1870, the Red River Colony was allowed independance by the Saulteaux Ojibwa's. However, those settlers who lived in Saskatchewan continued to be subjugated by the Saulteaux Ojibwa's. They were not allowed freedom until the late 1870s. Louis Riel was their leader.

Chief Peguis is thought to have died on September 28, 1864. However, he actually may have lived until 1922. An Ojibwa man known as John Smith, lived until the age of 137 at Leech Lake Reservation which is located in northern Minnesota. Smith had something wrong with his nose according to his adoptive son. His nose supposedly flapped around while drinking from a cup.

It is known that chief Peguis had his nose cut in a fight in 1802. He had the nick name of "Cut Nose." That's not the only similarity between chief Peguis and John Smith. Historically, it is known that a Saulteaux Ojibwa leader with the name John Smith, led 100s of Saulteaux Ojibwa's to central Saskatchewan, from the St. Peters Reserve in southeastern Manitoba.

They were set aside the Muskoday Reserve and James Smith Reserve, in Saskatchewan. Historians have written that the Indians of Muskoday and James Smith, are Cree. They are not Cree if they trace their origins to St. Peters Reserve. St. Peters Reserve was located within Saulteaux Ojibwa territory.

If chief Peguis was in fact the John Smith who died in 1922, he was not 137 when he died. He was 148. Chief Sitting Bull claimed to have been born and raised among the Red River Metis or Saulteaux Ojibwa's. If that's true, he probably knew chief Peguis. Many of the other Saulteaux Ojibwa's from St. Peters Reserve, were forced to relocate to Peguis Reserve in 1907.

What is fascinating about St. Peters Reserve, is it's identical name to the St. Peters Mission in the Great Falls, Montana region. We know during the time period between 1896 and 1918, several forced deportations of Saulteaux Ojibwa's from around the Great Falls region, happened. Canada was one of the locations the Montana Saulteaux Ojibwa's were deported. Alberta and Saskatchewan, were the provinces where Montana Saulteaux Ojibwa's were deported.

The Montana Saulteaux Ojibwa's were deported from the Great Falls, Montana region, between 1907 and 1909, to where Peguis Reserve is located in Manitoba.

Chief Eshtonoquot:[edit | edit source]

He was originally from Michigan. After the War of 1812, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's of the eastern Great Lakes region including Michigan, were forced to cede land. They knew what their future foretold and followed the Seven Fires Prophecy which told them to retreat away from the whites because they had evil intentions. During the 1836 treaty negotiations, the United States refused to cooperate. Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders wanted large Reservations but the United States did not agree. Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders knew from the Seven Fires Prophecy that the predictions were correct.

Not long after the 1836 treaties, they commenced to prepare their subjects for an exodus to the west. According to the May 9, 1836 Treaty, the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewas were to cede the Reservations set aside for them on November 17, 1807. No Reservations were set aside for the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewas on November 17, 1807. You must remember the War of 1812 had yet to be fought. The land area of the so called November 17, 1807 Treaty, was a hot spot during the War of 1812.

The March 28, 1836 Treaty, is the treaty that actually ceded the land in extreme southeast Michigan and the adjoining area in Ohio. It also ceded land in most of the northern part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and about half of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. What enraged Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders, was the United States did not negotiate with the proper Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders. Instead of negotiating with Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders of Michigan, they instead used a Saulteaux Ojibwa leader from Canada which makes the treaty invalid.

During 1837 and 1838, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's of southern Michigan and Ohio, commenced to gather for an exodus to the west. It was not a few hundred. It was 10,000s of Saulteaux Ojibwa's who followed the Seven Fires Prophecy that commenced the exodus in 1838.

Chief Eshtonoquot was probably their principle leader. Commencing the journey in 1838, they made their way west into the south of Illinois, from Ohio. By 1839, chief Eshtonoquot had led his people to eastern Kansas. There, they commenced contact with the Saulteaux Ojibwa's who lived in the 5 million acre Reservation located in western Iowa, northwestern Missouri, and extreme southern Minnesota and probably Latter-day Saint Missonaries.

Chief Eshtonoquot did return to Michigan on at least one occasion but possibly more. He also commenced contact with Mexican Ojibwa's. In fact, chief Eshtonoquot sent many Saulteaux Ojibwa's down to northern Mexico on several occasions. The exodus on late 1864 and early 1865, was probably organized by chief Eshtonoquot. He also sent many Saulteaux Ojibwa's west into Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah.

In 1868, chief Eshtonoquot died. His fierce defiance agitated American leaders. Chief Eshtonoquot may have sent many Saulteaux Ojibwa's to other locations but he kept in contact with Michigan Saulteaux Ojibwa's and refused to leave Kansas. After his death , new Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders were more willing to relocate. The July 19, 1866 Cherokee Treaty, allowed for arrangements for the Saulteaux Ojibwa's of Kansas, to relocate to the Cherokee Reservation in Oklahoma. At first, few Kansas Saulteaux Ojibwa's relocated to Oklahoma but after Chief Eshtonoquots death in 1868, the new Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders led far more Kansas Saulteaux Ojibwa's to northeastern Oklahoma. They make up the bulk of the Indian population of the Cherokee Naton of Oklahoma.

Additional References to the History of the Tribe[edit | edit source]

Reserves & Reservations[edit | edit source]


Animbiigoo Zaagi'igan


Bearskin Lake

Big Grassy

Big Trout Lake

Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging

Bingwi Neyaashi

Cat Lake


Deer Lake


Eagle Lake

Fort Severn

Fort William


Grassy Narrows

Gull Bay





Lac Des Mille Lacs

Lac La Croix

Lac Seul

Long Lake No. 58

McDowell Lake

Martin Falls



Muskrat Dam







North Spirit Lake

Northwest Angle No. 33

Northwest Angle No. 37



Ojibway of Saugeen

Ojibways of Onigaming

Pays Plat

Pic River


Poplar Hill

Rainy River

Red Rock

Sachigo Lake

Sandy Lake

Seine River

Shoal Lake No. 40

Slate Falls






Wazhusk Onigum






Berens River

Black River



Buffalo Point


Cross Lake (Cree and Saulteaux)

Ebb and Flow

Fort Alexander (Sagkeeng)

Fox Lake (Cree and Saulteaux)

Fisher River (Cree and Saulteaux)


Garden Hill

Gods Lake (Cree and Saulteaux)

Gods River (Cree and Saulteaux)

Grand Rapids

Hollow Water

Lake Manitoba

Lake St. Martin

Little Saskatchewan


Little Grand Rapids

Long Plain

Marcel Colomb (settled by chief KInistins Saulteaux)

Mathias Colomb (settled by chief KInistins Saulteaux)

Mosakahiken (Cree and Saulteaux)

Nelson House (Cree and Saulteaux)

Norway House (Cree and Saulteaux)


O-Pipon-Na-Piwin (Cree and Saulteaux)

Opaskwayak (Cree and Saulteaux)

Oxford House (Cree and Saulteaux)




Pine Creek

Poplar River

Red Sucker Lake

Rollin River

Roseau River

St. Theresa Point

Sandy Bay

Sapotaweyak (Cree and Saulteaux)

Shamattawa (Cree and Saulteaux)


Swan Lake

Tataskweyak (Cree and Saulteaux)


War Lake (Cree and Saulteaux)



Wuskwi  Sipihk (Cree and Saulteaux)

York Factory (Cree and Saulteaux)

Barren Lands (Chipewyan)

Churchill (Chipewyan)

Nothlands (Chipewyan)

Sayisi Dene (aka Tadoule Lake - Chipewyan)


Crooked Lakes Reserve (Cowessess, Kahkewistahaw, Ochapowace, Sakimay) - Saulteaux largely from chief Yellow Quills subjects

Cumberland House (Cree and Saulteaux)

File Hills Reserve (Little Black Bear, Okanese, Peepeekisis, Star Blanket) - Cree and Saulteaux

Grizzly Bears Head-Lean Man-Mosquito-Red Phesant Reserve (Cree-Dakota-Saulteaux)

Qu' Appelle Reserve (Muscowpetung, Pasqua, Piapot, Standing Buffalo) - Saulteaux

Day Star-Kawacatoose Reserve (Cree and Saulteaux)

Gordon-Muskowekwan Reserve (Saulteaux)

Little Pine-Poundmaker Reserve (settled by chief Big Bears Saulteaux - Little Pine is a part of Moosomin and Saulteaux) - Cree and Saulteaux

Saulteaux-Moosomin Reserve (Cree and Saulteaux)

Cote (Saulteaux largely from chief Yellow Quill's subjects)

Fishing Lake (Saulteaux largely from cheif Yellow Quill's subjects)

James Smith (settled by Saulteaux Ojibwa's from St. Peters Reserve in Manitoba)

Keeseekoose (Saulteaux)

Kinistin (Saulteaux largely from chief Yellow Quill's subjects)

Lac La Ronge (Cree and Saulteaux - settled by chief Kinistins Saulteaux)

Montreal Lake (Cree and Saulteaux - settled by chief Kinistins Saulteaux)

Muskoday (settled by Saulteaux Ojibwa's from St. Peters Reserve in Manitoba)

Ocean Man (Saulteaux largely from chief Yellow Quill's subjects)

Onion Lake (Cree and Saulteaux - settled by Saulteaux Ojibwa's from Montana)

Peter Ballantyne (Cree and Saulteaux - settled by chief Kinistins Saulteaux)

Red Earth (Cree and Saulteaux)

Shoal Lake (Cree and Saulteaux)

The Key (Saulteaux largely from chief Yellow Quill's subjects)

Thunderchild (Cree and Saulteaux - settled by chief Big Bears Saulteaux)

Waterhen Lake (Cree and Saulteaux)

White Bear (Saulteaux)

Witchekan Lake (Saulteaux)

Black Lake (Chipewyan)

Birch Narrows (Chipewyan)

Buffalo River (Chipewyan)

Clearwater (Chipewyan)

English River (Chipewyan)

Fond Du Lac (Chipewyan)

Hatchet Lake (Chipewyan)

La Loche (Chipewyan)


Alexis (Assiniboine-Cree-Saulteaux)

Beaver Reserve (Amikwa Chippewas)

Heart Lake (Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Horse Lake (Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Montana Reserve (settled by Saulteaux Chippewas from Montana)

O'Chiese-Sunchild Reserve (Cree and Saulteaux)

Paul (Assiniboine-Cree-Saulteaux)

Athabascan Chipewyan

Chipewyan Priaire

Cold Lake (Chipewyan)

Dene Tha' (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Fort McKay (Chipewyan)

Fort McMurray (Chipewyan)

Northwest Territories

Behchoko (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Behdzi Ahda (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Colville Lake (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Deline (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Deninu K'ue (Chipewyan)

Dettah (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Fort Good Hope (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Fort Laird (Chipewyan-Slavey - aka Acho Dene Koe)

Fort Norman (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Fort Providence (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Fort Simpson (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Fort Rae (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Gameti (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Hay River (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Jean Marie River (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Liidlii Kue (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Lutsel K'e (Chipewyan)

Nahanni Butte (Chipewyan-Mountain Dene)

N'Dilo (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Norman Wells (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Salt River (Chipewyan)

Sambaa K'e (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Smith's Landing (Chipewyan)

Tulita (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Wekweeti (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Wha Ti (Chipewyan-Dogrib)

Wrigley (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Yellowknife (Chipewyan-Yellowknife)

British Columbia

Kwadacha (Sekani or Beaver who are Amikwa Chippewas)

McLeod Lake (Sekani or Beaver who are Amikwa Chippewas)

Takla (Sekani or Beaver who are Amikwa Chippewas)

Tsey Keh (Sekani or Beaver who are Amikwa Chippewas)

Fort Nelson (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Prophet River (Chipewyan-Slavey)

Blueberry River (Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Doig River (Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Halfway River (Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Saulteau (aka East Moberly Lake) Saulteaux

West Moberly Lake (Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Dease River (they are Kaska who are Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Iskut (Tahltan or Beaver who are Amikwa Chippewas)

Kaska (they are Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Tahltan (they are Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)


Liard (they are Kaska who are Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Lower Post (they are Kaska who are Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)

Ross River (they are Beaver or Amikwa Chippewas)


Nez Perce Reservation (Nez Perce or Amikwa Chippewas)


Blackfeet Reservation (Cree and Saulteaux)

Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation (Cheyenne Ojibwa's, Dakota, Saulteaux)

Flathead Reservation (Cree, Flathead including the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreilles and Spokane, and Nez Perce or Amikwa Ojibwa's)

Fort Belknap Reservation (Assiniboine and Saulteaux)

Fort Peck Reservation (Assiniboine, Dakota, Saulteaux)

Little Shell Saulteaux Ojibwa's

North Dakota

Turtle Mountain Reservation (Saulteaux)


Bois Forte Reservation

Fond du Lac Reservation

Grand Portage Reservation

Leech Lake Reservation

Red Lake Reservation

White Earth Reservation


Cherokee Reservation (Saulteaux Ojibwa's from Michigan and Nez Perce or Amikwa Chippewas from Montana)

South Dakota

Cheyenne River Reservation (Saulteaux Chippewas from Montana)


Colville-Spokane Reservation (Nez Perce or Amikwa Chippewas)


Bad River Reservation

Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation

Lac du Flambeau Reservation

Menominee Reservation

Mole Lake Reservation

Potawatomi Reservation

Red Cliff Reservation

St. Croix Reservation

Stockbridge Reservation


Bay Mills Reservation

Grand Traverse Reservation

Hannahville Reservation

Huron Potawatomi Reservation

Isabella Reservation

Keweenaw Bay Reservation

Lac Vieux Desert Reservation

L'Anse Reservation

Little Traverse Reservation

Matchebenash Reservation

Pokagon Reservation

Soo Tribe of Michigan

Records[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Important Websites[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]