Consult Arizona county wiki pages for available county histories. Many of these histories contain information about ethnic groups which settled that county.
The '''earliest non-Indian settlers''' of [[Arizona|Arizona]] generally came into the Gila Valley from Sonora and Sinaloa states of Mexico. During the 1840s and 1850s, prospectors from eastern United States and from Texas passed through the valley on their way to the gold fields of California. Some returned to settle. When military personnel left at the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, the territory was almost abandoned to the Indians. The Apaches remained a serious threat until 1886.
Fort Defiance, established in 1852, was the only significant white outpost north of the Gila Valley until 1863, when politicians from northern states established Prescott as the first territorial capital. Phoenix, founded by an Englishman in 1867, became the territorial capital in 1889.