|Vanuatu Wiki Topics|
|Local Research Resources|
Description[edit | edit source]
The national language of the Republic of Vanuatu is Bislama. The official languages are Bislama, English, and French. The principal languages of education are English and French. The use of English or French as the formal language is split along political lines.
Bislama is a creole spoken natively in urban areas. Combining a typical Melanesian grammar and phonology with an almost entirely English-derived vocabulary, Bislama is the lingua franca of the archipelago, used by the majority of the population as a second language.
In addition, 113 indigenous languages, all of which are Southern Oceanic languages except for three outlier Polynesian languages, are spoken in Vanuatu. The density of languages, per capita, is the highest of any nation in the world, with an average of only 2,000 speakers per language. All vernacular languages of Vanuatu (i.e., excluding Bislama) belong to the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian family.
In recent years, the use of Bislama as a first language has considerably encroached on indigenous languages, whose use in the population has receded from 73.1 to 63.2 percent between 1999 and 2009. 
Bislama - More than 95% of Bislama words are of English origin, whilst the remainder comprises a few dozen words from French, as well as some specific vocabulary inherited from various languages of Vanuatu; though these are essentially limited to flora and fauna terminology. While the influence of these vernacular languages is low on the vocabulary side, it is very high in the morphosyntax. As such, Bislama can be described simply as a language with an English vocabulary and an Oceanic grammar and phonology. 
Word List(s)[edit | edit source]
- Literature and samples in Bislama at Wikipedia
- Bislama Phrasebook at Wikitravel
- Useful phrases in Bislama at Omniglot
- Bislama Spelling Dictionary
Alphabet and Pronunciation[edit | edit source]
The Bislama Latin alphabet uses the letters A, B, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y and the digraphs AE, AO and NG. 
- Bislama alphabet and pronunciation at Omniglot
Bislama - Grammar
- Two frequent prepositions in Bislama at Wikipedia
- Verbs in Bislama at Wikipedia
- Nouns in Bislama at Wikipedia
- Pronouns in Bislama at Wikipedia
- Tense in Bislama at Wikipedia
- Pacific creole comparison in Bislama at Wikipedia
Language Aids and Dictionaries[edit | edit source]
- Dictionary English - Bislama at Glosbe
- Bislama Dictionary at Lexilogos
- Bislama Spelling Dictionary at Bislama.org
- Bislama Spelling Dictionary
Additional Resources[edit | edit source]
- The Paamese language of Vanuatu at WorldCat
- The Avava language of central Malakula (Vanuatu) at WorldCat
- A grammar of Mavea : an oceanic language of Vanuatu at WorldCat
- Tape : a declining language of Malakula (Vanuatu) at WorldCat
- A grammar of Vurës, Vanuatu at WorldCat
- A grammar of Unua at WorldCat
- A grammar of South Efate : an oceanic language of Vanuatu at WorldCat
References[edit | edit source]
- Wikipedia contributors, "Vanuatu," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu#Languages, accessed 11 March 2021.
- Wikipedia contributors, "Bislama," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bislama, accessed 11 March 2021.
- Wikipedia contributors, "Orthography," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bislama#Orthography, accessed 11 March 2021.