White Earth Indian Reservation (Minnesota)

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White Earth Reservation
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It is a federally-recognized reservation in Minnesota.

Established -- March 19, 1867 & March 3, 1873

Agency (BIA) -- White Earth Agency (1872)

Principal tribes -- Chippewa of the Mississippi, Fond Du Lac Chippewa, Gull Lake Chippewa, Menominee Chippewa, Mille Lac Chippewa, Nett Lake (aka Bois Forte) Chippewa, Pembina Chippewa, Pillager Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa (includes Bois Forte or Nett Lake Chippewa), and Winnebago Chippewa.

Population -- 2010 census is 4,250 (when including mixed bloods it's 5,044) - Does not include non Indians

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This Reservation has an historical past which is very difficult to understand. Leech Lake Reservation and Red Lake Reservation, are involved. In the 1860s, the United States conspired to force the Chippewa's of Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin to relocate to one large Reservation in northern Minnesota. They actually first considered the removal in either the 1840s or 1850s. And they really wanted to relocate the very large Chippewa population in Montana, elsewhere. As a result of prophecy, Montana supported a very large Chippewa population. They are known as the Little Shell Pembina Chippewas.

Leech Lake Reservation was enlarged on May 7, 1864 and was probably the Reservation the United States intended to relocate Chippewas to. To the south of Leech Lake Reservation, were the Gull Lake, Mille Lacs, Otter Tail Lake, Rice Lake, and Sandy Lake Chippewas who were not impressed with the thought of relocating away from their lands.

About three years later, the United States once again enlarged Leech Lake Reservation to accommodate more Chippewas. That is, the Chippewas who agreed to relocate to the Reservation. Most didn't. White historians claim Leech Lake Reservation was reduced in size on May 7, 1864 but that is not true.

Added on to Leech Lake Reservation[edit | edit source]

On March 19, 1867, the United States reached their first agreement with a band of Mississippi Chippewas (they were the Gull Lake and Otter Tail Lake Chippewas). On March 19, 1867, the United States added more land on to Leech Lake Reservation. The land was located between the western border of Leech Lake Reservation, to the western border of White Earth Reservation. Within that land area, was ideal land to be set aside to be an Indian Reservation. It has a great many lakes and small mountains or hills. It was undesirable land to the whites.

They (the Gull Lake and Ottertail Lake Chippewas) settled within the Reservation. However, they were not the first Chippewas to do so. White Earth Reservation is within land supposedly ceded by the Pillager Chippewas. Other Chippewas including the Mille Lac and Winnebago or Winnibagoshish, moved to the Reservation from the south.

White Earth Reservation is actually connected to Leech Lake Reservation and Red Lake Reservation. As mentioned, the United States wanted to relocate Chippewas from Michigan and Wisconsin (it was really Montana) to a large Chippewa Reservation in northern Minnesota.

Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation, are Pembina Chippewa Reservations closely related to the Pillager Chippewas of Leech Lake Reservation. Click this link Click this link, to see the correct map of the Red Lake Reservation. Click this link, to see a map of the correct White Earth Reservation.

To the east, south, and southeast, Leech Lake Reservation borders the Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. Click this link to see a map that proves Leech Lake Reservation is connected to both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. It's the large Reservation the United States wanted to deport the Montana Little Shell Pembina Chippewas to. They actually conspired to deport the Montana Chippewas in the 1840s or 1850s.

Pembina Chippewa Reservation
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On March 3, 1873, a treaty formally set aside a Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation within White Earth Reservation. Historians claim one township (over 23,000 acres) was set aside within White Earth Reservation for the Little Shell Pembina Chippewas who are also known as the Turtle Mountain Chippewas. What the March 3, 1873 Treaty accomplished, was setting aside the northern portion of White Earth Reservation for the Little Shell Pembina Chippewas from Montana and North Dakota, especially Montana. The United States did not want the large Chippewa population in Montana. Their motivation being prophecy.

They resorted to corrupting the Montana Chippewas by claiming them as Cree or not Chippewa. They went so far as to claim they were from Canada. However, besides the native Montana Chippewas, Montana had become home to 10,000s of Great Lakes Chippewas who followed the Seven Fires Prophecy and migrated west. Montana could support a very large Chippewa population as a result of the vast buffalo herds.

The July 8, 1889 Treaty[edit | edit source]

On July 8, 1889, an agreement was reached with the Minnesota Chippewas which many claim was fraudulent. All Minnesota Chippewa Reservations were eradicated except Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. It clearly states in the July 8, 1889 Treaty, that White Earth Reservation claimed Red Lake Reservation land. That is through the Little Shell Pembina Chippewas.

To someone not familar with this treaty, it represents both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation, as being one Reservation. Two distinct Chippewa groups were mentioned. They are the Mississippi Chippewa and White Oak Band. White Oak Chippewas are the Pillager Chippewas which means Leech Lake Reservation is involved. Click this link to read the July 8, 1889 Treaty.

According to the 1889 Nelson Agreement, four townships located in the northeastern part of White Earth Reservation, were ceded. And through the July 8, 1889 Treaty, both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation, were classified as Restricted. And the United States misinformed the concerned Chippewas, by placing information within the treaty they obviously did not understand. It led to further loss of Reservation land at both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation, Chippewa leaders were not allowed to negotiate to prevent. Individual Chippewa men were allowed to vote to determine if they wanted to cede more land. Or the United States did not deal with the Red Lake and White Earth Reservations, on a nation to nation level. It was fraudulent.

Restricted Reservation Land
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Through treaty agreements, both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation, were classified as Restricted. Most Chippewas know Red Lake Reservation is Restricted (off limits) but don't know that White Earth Reservation is also Restricted. Minus the land loss that followed after 1889, at both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. Where is the Restricted land? Red Lake Reservation lost the western part of their Reservation but where did White Earth Reservation lose land at? The western third of the Reservation and a small strip along the northern part of the Reservation, along with the supposed loss of the four townships located in the northeastern part of the Reservation. Click this link to see a map of the Restricted land. Carefully look the map over. It is clearly written in the treaty that the Restricted land has the green color areas.

Land areas within White Earth Reservation which is Restricted Reservation land may include the following townships: Clover Township; La Prairie Township; Rice Township; Long Lost Lake Township; Twin Lakes Township; Little Elbow Township; White Earth Township; Maple Grove Township; Eagle View Township; Round Lake Township (both north and south); Forest Township; East Sugar Bush Township; and Pine Point Township. Most of Oakland Township and much of La Garde Township, are included as well. White Earth Reservation is made up of 36 townships, which means about half the Reservation is not Restricted.

As a result of the IRA, the Indian population has declined dramatically at White Earth Reservation. Indians were actually paid to leave the Reservation. The Indian population within the Restricted land area, should outnumber the non Indian population by at least 20 to 1. However, the dramatic Indian population decline at White Earth Reservation, has ruined the population demographics.

Indian Reorganization Act & Population Decline[edit | edit source]

In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act was promoted among Indian leaders. A vote to accept or reject the IRA had to be calculated. What makes White Earth Reservation especially important is the number of voters, population, and the number of votes. White Earth Reservation had a population of 8,059. Of that, 4,169 were of voting age. Of the 4,169 voters, only 367 actually voted which is a discrepancy. They voted to reject the IRA. Too few voted which can only mean what happened was fraudulent. One of the goals of the IRA was to relocate Indians from Reservations, off Reservation. That's exactly what followed.

The Indian population at White Earth Reservation was 3,002 in 1889. In 1901, the Indian population of White Earth Reservation was 4,719. It nearly doubled within 10 years. It can be largely attributed to the 1896 Chippewa Indian deportation out of the Great Falls, Montana region and north central Montana, to other Reservations including in Canada.

In 1920, it was 6,659. In 1930, it was 8,059. In 2000, it was 3,378 but 4,055 when including mixed bloods. White Earth Reservation has endured one of the most dramatic population declines of any Indian Reservation in the United States. At the Chippewa Hill 57 Rancheria or Colony, the population was over 400 in 1956. Today, it is probably less than 20. The IRA caused the dramitic population declines.

An example of the population decline can be found at the White Earth Reservation CDP (census designated place) of Pine Point. Before World War II, Pine Point had a population of near 1,500. Today, it is 338. Between 1901 and 1930, the Indian population of White Earth Reservation nearly doubled. From 4,719, it increased to 8,059, between 1901 and 1930. That's nearly a 75% population increase every 30 years. Something was keeping the Chippewas at White Earth Reservation. Another village that also lost population was Pine Bend. In 1900, around 100 or more Chippewas lived at Pine Bend. Today, it is 28.

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There are many predominantly Indian communities throughout White Earth Reservation. Nearly all are cdp's (census designated places). A few cities which are about half Indian including mixed bloods, and half white, are also located on this Reservation. And there are many other predominantly Indian tiny settlements which have yet to be classified as either a cdp or city, town, or village. The number of settlements may number near 40. However, most have less than 30 housing units. In fact, many have less than 20. And many have 10 or fewer housing units.

According to the 2010 census, the Indian population of White Earth Reservation was 4,250. When including mixed bloods it is 5,044. Leaders of White Earth Reservation must deal with the settlements which are not organized, sooner or later. They must issue each a community name and community limits. And give jurisdiction to each one. Build future housing units in a circle or C shaped street design to use as little land as possible for future commuity growth. Place hydroponic farms (greenhouse farms) within each community so employment is available and safe food (even tropical foods) is grown. Form fishing and hunting society's which will follow Federal and State laws, which will function as new employment opportunities.

Though White Earth Reservation does have up to 40 small communities within it's borders, less than 20 are actually a CDP (census designated place) or city or town. The White Earth Reservation cdp's and towns and non organized communities include:

  1. White Earth (cdp - 2010 population 580)
  2. Naytahwaush (cdp - 2010 population 578)
  3. Pine Point (cdp - 2010 population 338)
  4. Riverland (cdp - 2010 population 276)
  5. Rice Lake (cdp - 2010 population 235)
  6. Twin Lakes (cdp - 2010 population 149)
  7. Elbow Lake (cdp - 2010 population 95)
  8. West Roy Lake or South MahKonce (cdp - 2010 population 74)
  9. Ebro (cdp - 2010 population 64)
  10. Pine Bend (cdp - 2010 population 28)
  11. Midway (cdp - 2010 population 26)
  12. South End or Auginaush (cdp - 2010 population 25)
  13. Roy Lake (cdp - 2010 population 12)
  14. The Ranch (cdp - 2010 population 9)
  15. Waubun (2010 population 400)
  16. Callaway (2010 population 234)
  17. Ogema (2010 population 184)
  18. Yellowhead
  19. Chokecherry Lake
  20. Pickle Lake
  21. North White Earth Lake
  22. South White Earth
  23. Trailer Village
  24. Ice Cracking Lake
  25. Aspinwall Lake
  26. South Snider Lake
  27. Snider Lake
  28. South Twin Lake
  29. North MahKonce
  30. Goodwin Lake
  31. Long Lost Lake
  32. Waptus or Vaptus

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