Difference between revisions of "Butterfield Overland Mail"

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== Historical Background  ==
 
== Historical Background  ==
  
In 1853 the [[United States Genealogy|United States]] bought the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase Gadsden Purchase] from [[Mexico Genealogy|Mexico]]. This was land in what is now [[New Mexico Genealogy|New Mexico]] and [[Arizona Genealogy|Arizona]] south of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gila_River Gila River]. It was purchased in order to have a snow-free route from the rest of the United States to [[California, United States Genealogy|California]].<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Gadsden Purchase" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
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In 1853 the [[United States Genealogy|United States]] bought the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase Gadsden Purchase] from [[Mexico Genealogy|Mexico]]. This was land in what is now [[New Mexico, United States Genealogy|New Mexico]] and [[Arizona, United States Genealogy|Arizona]] south of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gila_River Gila River]. It was purchased in order to have a snow-free route from the rest of the United States to [[California, United States Genealogy|California]].<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Gadsden Purchase" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
  
From 1857 to 1861 a mail and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_coach stage coach] route was used called the '''Butterfield Overland Mail''', or '''Oxbow Route''', or '''Butterfield Overland Stage'''. The route went from eastern terminals at St. Louis, [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]]&nbsp;and Memphis, [[Tennessee Genealogy|Tennessee]]&nbsp;and joined at Fort Smith, [[Arkansas, United States Genealogy|Arkansas]]. From there it went through Indian Territory ([[Oklahoma, United States Genealogy|Oklahoma]]), El Paso&nbsp;([[Texas Genealogy|Texas]]),&nbsp;[[New Mexico Genealogy|New Mexico]], Yuma ([[Arizona Genealogy|Arizona]]), Los Angeles, and&nbsp;San Francisco, [[California, United States Genealogy|California]]. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wells_Fargo Wells Fargo] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express#History American Express] companies operated this stage coach and mail service contract.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
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From 1857 to 1861 a mail and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_coach stage coach] route was used called the '''Butterfield Overland Mail''', or '''Oxbow Route''', or '''Butterfield Overland Stage'''. The route went from eastern terminals at St. Louis, [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]] and Memphis, [[Tennessee, United States Genealogy|Tennessee]] and joined at Fort Smith, [[Arkansas, United States Genealogy|Arkansas]]. From there it went through Indian Territory ([[Oklahoma, United States Genealogy|Oklahoma]]), El Paso ([[Texas, United States Genealogy|Texas]]), [[New Mexico, United States Genealogy|New Mexico]], Yuma ([[Arizona, United States Genealogy|Arizona]]), Los Angeles, and San Francisco, [[California, United States Genealogy|California]]. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wells_Fargo Wells Fargo] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express#History American Express] companies operated this stagecoach and mail service contract.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
  
 
In 1861 Congress discontinued this mail route in favor of the [[Central Overland Trail]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pony_Express Pony Express] (See also [[Pony Express]] and telegraph) to California (St. Joseph, [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]] to Placerville, California).<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009), and Wikipedia contributors, "Central Overland Route" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Overland_Route (accessed 4 July 2009). </ref>In 1881 a route like the old Butterfield Overland Mail was followed by the [[Southern Pacific Railroad|Southern Pacific Railroad]] from Los Angeles to El Paso.  
 
In 1861 Congress discontinued this mail route in favor of the [[Central Overland Trail]] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pony_Express Pony Express] (See also [[Pony Express]] and telegraph) to California (St. Joseph, [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]] to Placerville, California).<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009), and Wikipedia contributors, "Central Overland Route" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Overland_Route (accessed 4 July 2009). </ref>In 1881 a route like the old Butterfield Overland Mail was followed by the [[Southern Pacific Railroad|Southern Pacific Railroad]] from Los Angeles to El Paso.  
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*San Francisco, [[California, United States Genealogy|California]]  
 
*San Francisco, [[California, United States Genealogy|California]]  
 
*Los Angeles, California  
 
*Los Angeles, California  
*Yuma, [[Arizona Genealogy|Arizona]]  
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*Yuma, [[Arizona, United States Genealogy|Arizona]]  
 
*Tucson, Arizona  
 
*Tucson, Arizona  
*Franklin (near El Paso), [[Texas Genealogy|Texas]]  
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*Franklin (near El Paso), [[Texas, United States Genealogy|Texas]]  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Chadbourne Fort Chadbourne], Texas (central west Texas)  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Chadbourne Fort Chadbourne], Texas (central west Texas)  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colbert%27s_Ferry Colbert's Ferry], Indian Territory (on Red River near Colbert, [[Oklahoma, United States Genealogy|Oklahoma]])  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colbert%27s_Ferry Colbert's Ferry], Indian Territory (on Red River near Colbert, [[Oklahoma, United States Genealogy|Oklahoma]])  
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== Settlers and Records  ==
 
== Settlers and Records  ==
  
Most of the settlers who used this stage line would have settled in [[California, United States Genealogy|California]]. [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]], [[Illinois Genealogy|Illinois]], and [[Tennessee Genealogy|Tennessee]] are the most likely origins of people who used this route.  
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Most of the settlers who used this stage line would have settled in [[California, United States Genealogy|California]]. [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]], [[Illinois, United States Genealogy|Illinois]], and [[Tennessee, United States Genealogy|Tennessee]] are the most likely origins of people who used this route.  
  
 
No known passenger lists are available.  
 
No known passenger lists are available.  
  
== Internet Lnks ===
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== Internet Links ==
  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail Butterfield Overland Mail - Wikipedia] history, route, remnants, and references  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail Butterfield Overland Mail - Wikipedia] history, route, remnants, and references  

Latest revision as of 05:21, 5 June 2020


[[Image:

Butterfield Overland Mail route from St. Louis or Memphis to Fort Smith, El Paso, Yuma, Los Angeles and San Francisco

]]

Overland mail was carried in this type of stagecoach. This ca. 1869 coach is guarded by soldiers on top.


Historical Background[edit | edit source]

In 1853 the United States bought the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico. This was land in what is now New Mexico and Arizona south of the Gila River. It was purchased in order to have a snow-free route from the rest of the United States to California.[1]

From 1857 to 1861 a mail and stage coach route was used called the Butterfield Overland Mail, or Oxbow Route, or Butterfield Overland Stage. The route went from eastern terminals at St. Louis, Missouri and Memphis, Tennessee and joined at Fort Smith, Arkansas. From there it went through Indian Territory (Oklahoma), El Paso (Texas), New Mexico, Yuma (Arizona), Los Angeles, and San Francisco, California. The Wells Fargo and American Express companies operated this stagecoach and mail service contract.[2]

In 1861 Congress discontinued this mail route in favor of the Central Overland Trail (Pony Express (See also Pony Express and telegraph) to California (St. Joseph, Missouri to Placerville, California).[3]In 1881 a route like the old Butterfield Overland Mail was followed by the Southern Pacific Railroad from Los Angeles to El Paso.

Route[edit | edit source]

Settlers and Records[edit | edit source]

Most of the settlers who used this stage line would have settled in California. Missouri, Illinois, and Tennessee are the most likely origins of people who used this route.

No known passenger lists are available.

Internet Links[edit | edit source]

Sources[edit | edit source]

  1. Wikipedia contributors, "Gadsden Purchase" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase (accessed 4 July 2009).
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009), and Wikipedia contributors, "Central Overland Route" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Overland_Route (accessed 4 July 2009).
  4. Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).