Difference between revisions of "Chippewa Tribe"

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'''[[Image:Chippewa, Chief Rocky Boy (Stone Child) dressed in an ornate attire, NO. 120.jpg|thumb|right]][[Image:Chippewa-One-Called-From-A-Distance(Midwewinind)-White Earth Reservation, MN-1894|thumb|right]]'''  
 
'''[[Image:Chippewa, Chief Rocky Boy (Stone Child) dressed in an ornate attire, NO. 120.jpg|thumb|right]][[Image:Chippewa-One-Called-From-A-Distance(Midwewinind)-White Earth Reservation, MN-1894|thumb|right]]'''  
  
To get started in [[American_Indian_Genealogy|American Indian Research]]
+
To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]  
  
 
'''Various Spellings:''' Chippewa, Ojibway, Ojibwa  
 
'''Various Spellings:''' Chippewa, Ojibway, Ojibwa  
  
Chippewa is the Anglicized version of Ojibway (also spelled Ojibwe and Ojibwa). The name Chippewa is more commonly used in the United States and the name Ojibway is more common in Canada<ref>Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) [http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm Available online]</ref><ref>*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chippewa/chippewahist.htm Available online].</ref>.  
+
Chippewa is the Anglicized version of Ojibway (also spelled Ojibwe and Ojibwa). The name Chippewa is more commonly used in the United States and the name Ojibway is more common in Canada<ref>Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) [http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm Available online]</ref> <ref>*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chippewa/chippewahist.htm Available online].</ref>.  
  
 
'''Bands:''' Missisaugaa and Salteaux&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Other Bands: Fish, Loon, Marten, Crane, and the Bear  
 
'''Bands:''' Missisaugaa and Salteaux&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Other Bands: Fish, Loon, Marten, Crane, and the Bear  
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=== History  ===
 
=== History  ===
  
The Chippewa or Ojibway Indians are one of the largest groups of American Indians in North America. There are nearly 150 different bands of Chippewa in the northern part of the United States and in southern Canada (especially in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan)<ref>Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;A href="http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm" _fcksavedurl="http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;Available online&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/A&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;.</ref>.  
+
The Chippewa or Ojibway Indians are one of the largest groups of American Indians in North America. There are nearly 150 different bands of Chippewa in the northern part of the United States and in southern Canada (especially in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan)<ref>Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;A href="http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm" _fcksavedurl="http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;Available online&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/A&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;.</ref>.  
  
 
The Chippewa were exposed to non-indians in the early 1600's.&nbsp;The tribe established trade relations with the French.&nbsp; During the French and Indian War they fought with the French to protect their trade relationships.  
 
The Chippewa were exposed to non-indians in the early 1600's.&nbsp;The tribe established trade relations with the French.&nbsp; During the French and Indian War they fought with the French to protect their trade relationships.  
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Relationships with other tribes developed as inter tribial warfare broght them together with the [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa,]] [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi,]] Sac, Meskwaki and [[Kickapoo Indians|Kickapoo]] to defeat the Illinois in 1769.  
 
Relationships with other tribes developed as inter tribial warfare broght them together with the [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa,]] [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi,]] Sac, Meskwaki and [[Kickapoo Indians|Kickapoo]] to defeat the Illinois in 1769.  
  
The tribe fought&nbsp;with and supported&nbsp;the British during the&nbsp;Revolutionary War.  
+
The tribe fought with and supported the British during the Revolutionary War.  
  
 
Land cessions began in 1815, and continued through the mid 1800's. As land was ceded many tribal members migrated.  
 
Land cessions began in 1815, and continued through the mid 1800's. As land was ceded many tribal members migrated.  
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*'''1622:''' encounter a Frenchman employed by Samuel de Champlain  
 
*'''1622:''' encounter a Frenchman employed by Samuel de Champlain  
 
*'''1689-1763:''' fought with French in the French and Indian War, to protect their trade interest  
 
*'''1689-1763:''' fought with French in the French and Indian War, to protect their trade interest  
*'''1754-63:'''&nbsp;&nbsp;fought with French in French and Indian War  
+
*'''1754-63:'''fought with French in French and Indian War  
*'''1769:'''&nbsp;Joined the [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa,]] [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi,]] Sac, Meskwaki and [[Kickapoo Indians|Kickapoo]] to defeat the Illinois tribe  
+
*'''1769:'''Joined the [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa,]] [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi,]] Sac, Meskwaki and [[Kickapoo Indians|Kickapoo]] to defeat the Illinois tribe  
*'''1776-&nbsp;1783: '''Fought with British during the Revolutionary War  
+
*'''1776-1783: '''Fought with British during the Revolutionary War  
 
*'''1815:'''&nbsp; Ceded much of their land  
 
*'''1815:'''&nbsp; Ceded much of their land  
 
*'''1830:''' in opposition to the Indian removal Act; many of the tribe moved north to Canada. Some remained in the U.S.  
 
*'''1830:''' in opposition to the Indian removal Act; many of the tribe moved north to Canada. Some remained in the U.S.  
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==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands  ====
 
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands  ====
  
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chippewa/chippewahist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the&nbsp;Chippewa&nbsp;tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/chippewaindianhist.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
+
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chippewa/chippewahist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Chippewa tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/chippewaindianhist.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
  
 
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=579 Chippewa Indians]  
 
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=579 Chippewa Indians]  
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*Chippewa Agency
 
*Chippewa Agency
  
===== Allotment Records =====
+
===== Allotment Records =====
  
Land Tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa. FHL film: 965791 item 5
+
Land Tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa. {{FHL|film: 965791}} item 5  
  
 
==== Correspondence and Census  ====
 
==== Correspondence and Census  ====
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! scope="col" | FHL Film Number  
 
! scope="col" | FHL Film Number  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Post-1885 Census M595&nbsp;RG 75 Rolls 693  
+
Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Rolls 693  
  
 
&nbsp;Roll Number
 
&nbsp;Roll Number
Line 244: Line 244:
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| Roll 253  
 
| Roll 253  
| 579663
+
| {{FHL|Film:579663}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chippewa, Mississippi  
 
| Chippewa, Mississippi  
Line 286: Line 286:
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 229-32  
 
| Rolls 229-32  
| 576918-576921
+
| {{FHL|Films:576918-576921}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chippewa, Wisconsin  
 
| Chippewa, Wisconsin  
| Red Cliff Agency and School,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1901-22&nbsp;
+
| Red Cliff Agency and School, 1901-22
 
| Chicago  
 
| Chicago  
 
| -  
 
| -  
Line 310: Line 310:
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls94-97  
 
| Rolls94-97  
| 575786-575789
+
| {{FHL|Films:575786-575789}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chippewa  
 
| Chippewa  
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| Rolls 234-42  
 
| Rolls 234-42  
 
|  
 
|  
576923-576931  
+
|{{FHL|Films:576923-576931 }}
  
and 579725-579726
+
and {{FHL|Films: 579725-579726}}
  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 338: Line 338:
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 649-62  
 
| Rolls 649-62  
| 583108-583121
+
| {{FHL|Films:583108-583121}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chippewa, Pillager  
 
| Chippewa, Pillager  
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| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 57-76  
 
| Rolls 57-76  
| 576932-576936
+
| {{FHL|Film:576932-576936}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Chippewa Red Lake  
 
| Chippewa Red Lake  
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| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 230-42, 418-25  
 
| Rolls 230-42, 418-25  
| 581412-418
+
| {{FHL|Films:581412-581418}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====  ====
 
====  ====
  
'''1836 census '''- 6th article of 1836 Treaty of of men, women and children FHL Film: 982330 Item 4 or&nbsp; Book: Q 970.1 Al #4  
+
'''1836 census '''- 6th article of 1836 Treaty of of men, women and children {{FHL|Film: 982330}} Item 4 or {{FHL|Book: Q 970.1 Al #4 }}
 
 
====
 
 
 
====
 
  
==== Treaties<br> ====
+
==== Treaties====
  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0006.htm 1785] January 21, at Fort McIntosh - Wyandot&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0006.htm 1785] January 21, at Fort McIntosh - Wyandot
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0018.htm 1789] January 9, at Fort Harmar - Wyandot&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0018.htm 1789] January 9, at Fort Harmar - Wyandot
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0039.htm 1795] August 3, at Greenville - Wyandot&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0039.htm 1795] August 3, at Greenville - Wyandot  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0077.htm 1805] July 4, at Fort Industry - Wyandot&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0077.htm 1805] July 4, at Fort Industry - Wyandot
 
*November 17, 1807, at Detroit - Ottawa  
 
*November 17, 1807, at Detroit - Ottawa  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0099.htm 1808] November 25, at Brownstown &nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0099.htm 1808] November 25, at Brownstown  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0162.htm 1815] September 8, at Spring Wells - Wyandot&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0162.htm 1815] September 8, at Spring Wells - Wyandot  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ott0132.htm 1816] August 24, at St. Louis - Ottawa&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ott0132.htm 1816] August 24, at St. Louis - Ottawa  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0145.htm 1817] September 29, on the Miami - Wyandot&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0145.htm 1817] September 29, on the Miami - Wyandot
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0162.htm 1818] Wyandot  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0162.htm 1818] Wyandot  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0185.htm 1819] September 24, at Saginaw&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0185.htm 1819] September 24, at Saginaw  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0187.htm 1820] June 16, at Sault Ste. Marie&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0187.htm 1820] June 16, at Sault Ste. Marie
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0188.htm 1820] July 6, L'Arbe Croche and Michilmackinac&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0188.htm 1820] July 6, L'Arbe Croche and Michilmackinac
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ott0198.htm 1821] August 29, at Chicago - Ottawa&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/ott0198.htm 1821] August 29, at Chicago - Ottawa
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0250.htm 1825] with the Sioux&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0250.htm 1825] with the Sioux
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0268.htm 1826]&nbsp;August 19, at Fond du Lac &nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0268.htm 1826]&nbsp;August 19, at Fond du Lac
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0281.htm 1827] August 11, at Butte des Morts&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0281.htm 1827] August 11, at Butte des Morts  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/win0292.htm 1828] August25, at Green&nbsp;Bay - Winnebago &nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/win0292.htm 1828] August25, at Green&nbsp;Bay - Winnebago  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0297.htm 1829] July 29, at&nbsp;Prairie du Chien &nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0297.htm 1829] July 29, at&nbsp;Prairie du Chien  
*September 26, 1833, at Chicago&nbsp;
+
*September 26, 1833, at Chicago  
 
*March 28, 1836, - Ottawa  
 
*March 28, 1836, - Ottawa  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0461.htm 1836]&nbsp; May 9, at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0461.htm 1836] May 9, at Washington  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0482.htm 1837]&nbsp; January 14, at Detroit&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0482.htm 1837]&nbsp; January 14, at Detroit
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0491.htm 1837] July 29, at St. Peter&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0491.htm 1837] July 29, at St. Peter
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0501.htm 1837] December&nbsp;, at Flint River&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0501.htm 1837] December, at Flint River
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0516.htm 1838] January 23, at Saginaw&nbsp;
+
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0516.htm 1838] January 23, at Saginaw
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0528.htm 1839] February 7,&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0528.htm 1839] February 7,
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0542.htm 1842] October 4,&nbsp;at La Pointe&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0542.htm 1842] October 4, at La Pointe
*&nbsp;June 5 and 17, 1846, at Council Bluffs  
+
*June 5 and 17, 1846, at Council Bluffs  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pot0557.htm 1846] Potawatomi Nation&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pot0557.htm 1846] Potawatomi Nation  
 
*August 2, 1847, at Fond du Lac  
 
*August 2, 1847, at Fond du Lac  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0567.htm 1847] August 2,&nbsp;Chippewa of the &nbsp;Mississippi and Lake Superior&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0567.htm 1847] August 2, Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior  
 
*August 2, 1847, Pillager Band of Chippewa  
 
*August 2, 1847, Pillager Band of Chippewa  
 
*August 21, 1847, at Leech Lake  
 
*August 21, 1847, at Leech Lake  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0648.htm 1854]&nbsp;September 30, at La Pointe&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0648.htm 1854]September 30, at La Pointe
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0685.htm 1855] February 22, at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0685.htm 1855] February 22, at Washington  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0733.htm 1855] August 2,&nbsp;of Saginaw&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0733.htm 1855] August 2,of Saginaw
 
*July 31, 1855, at Detroit -  
 
*July 31, 1855, at Detroit -  
 
*August 2, 1855, at Detroit -Chippewa of Sault Ste., Marie  
 
*August 2, 1855, at Detroit -Chippewa of Sault Ste., Marie  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0792.htm 1859] July 16, at Sauk and Foxes Agency&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0792.htm 1859] July 16, at Sauk and Foxes Agency
 
*March 11, 1863, at Washington  
 
*March 11, 1863, at Washington  
 
*March 11, 1863, Chippewa of the Mississippi and the Pilager and Lake Winnibigoshish Bands,  
 
*March 11, 1863, Chippewa of the Mississippi and the Pilager and Lake Winnibigoshish Bands,  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0853.htm 1863] October 2, at Red Lake and Pembina Bands&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0853.htm 1863] October 2, at Red Lake and Pembina Bands
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0861.htm 1864] April 12, at Washington, Red Lakd and Pembina Bands&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0861.htm 1864] April 12, at Washington, Red Lakd and Pembina Bands
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0862.htm 1864]&nbsp; May 7,&nbsp;at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0862.htm 1864]&nbsp; May 7,&nbsp;at Washington
 
*October 18, 1864, at Isabella Reserve  
 
*October 18, 1864, at Isabella Reserve  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0868.htm 1864] October&nbsp;18, Chippewa of Saginaw, Swan Creek and Black River&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0868.htm 1864] October&nbsp;18, Chippewa of Saginaw, Swan Creek and Black River
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0916.htm 1866] April 7, at Washington, Bois Forte Band&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0916.htm 1866] April 7, at Washington, Bois Forte Band
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0974.htm 1867] March 19, at Washington, Chippewa of the Mississippi&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0974.htm 1867] March 19, at Washington, Chippewa of the Mississippi
  
 
==== Black River Treaty  ====
 
==== Black River Treaty  ====

Revision as of 20:20, 3 May 2011

Chippewa, Chief Rocky Boy (Stone Child) dressed in an ornate attire, NO. 120.jpg

To get started in American Indian Research

Various Spellings: Chippewa, Ojibway, Ojibwa

Chippewa is the Anglicized version of Ojibway (also spelled Ojibwe and Ojibwa). The name Chippewa is more commonly used in the United States and the name Ojibway is more common in Canada[1] [2].

Bands: Missisaugaa and Salteaux    Other Bands: Fish, Loon, Marten, Crane, and the Bear

Little Shell Band of Chippewa

Original Homelands: Great Lakes region; Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, North Dakota and Ontario.

Linguistic: Algonquian

See also: Chippewa-Cree

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

The Chippewa or Ojibway Indians are one of the largest groups of American Indians in North America. There are nearly 150 different bands of Chippewa in the northern part of the United States and in southern Canada (especially in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan)[3].

The Chippewa were exposed to non-indians in the early 1600's. The tribe established trade relations with the French.  During the French and Indian War they fought with the French to protect their trade relationships.

Relationships with other tribes developed as inter tribial warfare broght them together with the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sac, Meskwaki and Kickapoo to defeat the Illinois in 1769.

The tribe fought with and supported the British during the Revolutionary War.

Land cessions began in 1815, and continued through the mid 1800's. As land was ceded many tribal members migrated.

In 1860 the tribe was removed to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. In 1892 assigned to Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota, later assigned to the Rocky Boy's reservation in Montana with the Cree tribe with whom they had united with in the 1890's later becoming known as Chippewa-Cree

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

  • 1622: encounter a Frenchman employed by Samuel de Champlain
  • 1689-1763: fought with French in the French and Indian War, to protect their trade interest
  • 1754-63:fought with French in French and Indian War
  • 1769:Joined the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sac, Meskwaki and Kickapoo to defeat the Illinois tribe
  • 1776-1783: Fought with British during the Revolutionary War
  • 1815:  Ceded much of their land
  • 1830: in opposition to the Indian removal Act; many of the tribe moved north to Canada. Some remained in the U.S.
  • 1836: May 9, the Swan Creek  and Black River Chippewa sign a treaty.
  • 1847: ceded land in Michigan and Wisconsin
  • 1860: removed to Indian territory (Oklahoma)
  • 1890's the Chippewa tribe united with the Cree tribe
  • 1892: assigned to Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota
  • 1916: assigned to Rocky Boy's Reservation in Montana with the Plains Cree
  • 1968: the American Indian Movement (AIM) founded by three Ojibwa: Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, and Clyde Bellecourt

Reservations[edit | edit source]

Bay Mills, Grand Portage, Leeck Lake, Mille Lacs, Red Lake, Nett Lake, Turtle Mountain, White Earth, Rocky Boy's, Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, Keweenaw Bay, Fond Du Lac, Mole Lake, Red Cliff, and St. Croix

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands[edit | edit source]

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Chippewa tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Ohio History Central article on the Chippewa Indians

Bands and Other Subdivisions of the Chippewa Tribe[edit | edit source]

United States[edit | edit source]

Many of the bands or groups of Chippewa in the United States reside in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota[4]. The band names have changed or have been spelled differently over time. Many of the groups listed below have their own reservation. Some are federally recognized and have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs with whom they interact. Multiple groups sometimes interact with a single BIA Agency. More information will be forthcoming on pages for each of the bands or groups listed below.

Some of the larger bands of Chippewa in the United States are:

Canada[edit | edit source]

The Ojibway First Nation in Canada live primarily in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan[5].


Records[edit | edit source]

Agencies[edit | edit source]

  • Chippewa Agency
Allotment Records[edit | edit source]

Land Tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa. FHL film: 965791 item 5

Correspondence and Census[edit | edit source]

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234  RG 75

Rolls 962

 Roll Number

FHL Film Number

Post-1885 Census M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

 Roll Number

FHL Film Number
Chippewa Red Lake Agency, 1894-1961 Washington D.C. and Kansas City - - Rolls 417-24 -
Chippewa (Pembina) Turtle Mountain Agency, 1869-1955 Washington D.C. and Kansas City - - Rolls 595-607 583054-583066
Chippewa, Bois Fort Nett Lake Sub-Agency, 1908-18 Washington D.C. and Kansas City - - Roll 287 -
Chippewa, Consolidated Minnesota (Consol.Chippewa) Agency, 1890-1953 Washington D.C. and Kansas City - - Rolls 57-62 574216-575768
Chippewa, Kansas Potawatomi Agency, ca. 1876 Washington D.C. andKansas City Rolls 678-95 - Rolls 2, 11, 57-76,94-97,117-167,170-71,180 -
Chippewa, Kansas Osage River Agency, to 1851 Washington D.C. Rolls 642-51 - Rolls 181,140-47, 187, 229-32, 253,392-95 -
Chippewa, Kansas Ottawa Agency,   1863-64 Washington D.C. Rolls 656-58 - Rolls 417,595-607,628,649-62 -
Chippewa, Kansas Sac and Fox Agency, 1851-63,1864-69 Washington D.C. and Chicago Rolls 728-44 - - -
Chippewa, Lake Supperior/Minnesota Chippewa Agency, 1851-53 Washington D.C. and Chicago Rolls 149-68 - - -
Chippewa, Lake Supperior La Pointe Agency, 1831-50 Washington D.C. Rolls 387-400 - - -
Chippewa, Lake Supperior Mackinac Agency, 1853-54 Washington D.C. Rolls 402-16 - - -
Chippewa, Lake Superior/Mississippi Sandy Lake Subagency,1850-51 Washington D.C. Roll 767 - - -
Chippewa, Michigan Mackinac Agency,1903-27 Washington D.C. and Chicago Rolls 402-16 - Roll 253 FHL Film:579663
Chippewa, Mississippi Winnebago Agency, 1848-1947 Washington D.C. and Kansas City Rolls 931-47 - - -
Chippewa, United Band Chicago and Green Bay, East, 1824-80 Chicago Rolls 132-34, 315-36 - - -
Chippewa, United Band Council Bluffs Agency, 1837-47 Washington D.C. Rolls 215-18 - - -
Chippewa, Wisconsin

Great Lakes Consol. Agency, 1875-1952

Chicago - - Rolls 170-71 -
Chippewa, Wisconsin Lac du Flambeau Agency/School, 1896-1932 Chicago - - Rolls 229-32 FHL Films:576918-576921
Chippewa, Wisconsin Red Cliff Agency and School, 1901-22 Chicago - - Roll 417 581411
Chippewa, Wisconsin Tomah Indian School and Agency,1908-34 Chicago - - - -
Chippewa Devil's Lake-Fort Totten, 1890-1950 Kansas City Rolls 281-84 - Rolls94-97 FHL Films:575786-575789
Chippewa La Pointe Agency, 1886-1922 Chicago Rolls 387-400 - Rolls 234-42 FHL Films:576923-576931

and FHL Films: 579725-579726

Chippewa Leech Lake Agency, 1899-1922 Kansas City - - Rolls 243-47 576932-576936
Chippewa White Earth Agency, 1892-1929 Kansas City - - Rolls 649-62 FHL Films:583108-583121
Chippewa, Pillager Leech Lake / Chippewa Agency, 1908-31 Kansas City - - Rolls 57-76 FHL Film:576932-576936
Chippewa Red Lake Red Lake Agency, 1894-1952 Kansas City - - Rolls 230-42, 418-25 FHL Films:581412-581418

[edit | edit source]

1836 census - 6th article of 1836 Treaty of of men, women and children FHL Film: 982330 Item 4 or FHL Book: Q 970.1 Al #4

Treaties[edit | edit source]

  • 1785 January 21, at Fort McIntosh - Wyandot
  • 1789 January 9, at Fort Harmar - Wyandot
  • 1795 August 3, at Greenville - Wyandot
  • 1805 July 4, at Fort Industry - Wyandot
  • November 17, 1807, at Detroit - Ottawa
  • 1808 November 25, at Brownstown
  • 1815 September 8, at Spring Wells - Wyandot
  • 1816 August 24, at St. Louis - Ottawa
  • 1817 September 29, on the Miami - Wyandot
  • 1818 Wyandot
  • 1819 September 24, at Saginaw
  • 1820 June 16, at Sault Ste. Marie
  • 1820 July 6, L'Arbe Croche and Michilmackinac
  • 1821 August 29, at Chicago - Ottawa
  • 1825 with the Sioux
  • 1826 August 19, at Fond du Lac
  • 1827 August 11, at Butte des Morts
  • 1828 August25, at Green Bay - Winnebago
  • 1829 July 29, at Prairie du Chien
  • September 26, 1833, at Chicago
  • March 28, 1836, - Ottawa
  • 1836 May 9, at Washington
  • 1837  January 14, at Detroit
  • 1837 July 29, at St. Peter
  • 1837 December, at Flint River
  •  1838 January 23, at Saginaw
  • 1839 February 7,
  • 1842 October 4, at La Pointe
  • June 5 and 17, 1846, at Council Bluffs
  • 1846 Potawatomi Nation
  • August 2, 1847, at Fond du Lac
  • 1847 August 2, Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior
  • August 2, 1847, Pillager Band of Chippewa
  • August 21, 1847, at Leech Lake
  • 1854September 30, at La Pointe
  • 1855 February 22, at Washington
  • 1855 August 2,of Saginaw
  • July 31, 1855, at Detroit -
  • August 2, 1855, at Detroit -Chippewa of Sault Ste., Marie
  • 1859 July 16, at Sauk and Foxes Agency
  • March 11, 1863, at Washington
  • March 11, 1863, Chippewa of the Mississippi and the Pilager and Lake Winnibigoshish Bands,
  • 1863 October 2, at Red Lake and Pembina Bands
  • 1864 April 12, at Washington, Red Lakd and Pembina Bands
  • 1864  May 7, at Washington
  • October 18, 1864, at Isabella Reserve
  • 1864 October 18, Chippewa of Saginaw, Swan Creek and Black River
  • 1866 April 7, at Washington, Bois Forte Band
  • 1867 March 19, at Washington, Chippewa of the Mississippi

Black River Treaty[edit | edit source]

  • May 9, 1836
  • 1855 August 2,  
  • October 18, 1864

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

  • Consolidated Chippewa Agency, M595, births and deaths, 1924-1932, FHL Film: 574229
  • Lad du Flambeau Agency, M595,  births and deaths, 1924-1932 ,FHL Film: 576920
  • Red Lake Agency, M595, births and deaths, 1925-1932, FHL Film: 581416
  • Turtle Mountain Agency, M595, births and deaths,  1924-1932, FHL Film: 583063


Important Web Sites[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Ojibwa

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) Available online
  2. *Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  3. Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;A href="http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm" _fcksavedurl="http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm"&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;Available online&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;lt;/A&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt;.
  4. Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) Available online.
  5. Facts for Kids: Ojibway Indians (Chippewa, Ojibway) Available online.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published