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Dutch Genealogical
Word List
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Dutch (Nederlands), like English and German, is a Germanic language derived from Old Low Franconian and Old Saxon. Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), the Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean, and Suriname.

Flemish, which is spoken in Belgium, is a major dialect (regional variation) of Dutch. It uses words similar to the words on this list. Afrikaans, a separate language spoken in South Africa, is descended from Dutch and preserves many older and dialect features of Dutch, but contains many German and English words as well.

Frisian, which is spoken in the Dutch province of Friesland, is a different language from Dutch.

In addition, Dutch is found in some early records of the United States (mostly in New York, New Jersey, Michigan, and Iowa) and in South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Brazil and Taiwan.

It is very closely related to the dialects of northern Germany known as Low German.  Indeed, the traditional dialects along the Dutch-German border are virtually the same.  You may want to read about the linguistic situation in the lower Rhine area or about spelling variations there.

Key Words

To find and use specific types of Dutch records, you will need to know some key words in Dutch. This section lists key genealogical terms in English and the Dutch words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Dutch words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Dutch records to indicate marriage.

English Dutch
baptism/christening dopen, doop, gedoopt
birth geboorte, geboren
burial begraven, begraaf
Catholic rooms katholiek
census volkstelling, bevolking
child, children kind, kinderen
city stad
civil registration burgerlijke stand
death overleden, overlijden, gestorven
father vader
husband man
index tafel, klapper, fiche
Jewish joods
marriage(s) huwelijk(en), trouwen, echt, gehuwden, getrouwd
military militaire, landweer, krijgsmacht
month maand
mother moeder
municipality gemeente
name, given voornaam, eerste naam
name, surname achternaam, familienaam, bijnaam, toenaam
parents ouders
parish parochie, statie
Protestant protestant
spouse, partner echtgenoot
supplement bijlage
town, village dorp, buurtschaap
wife huisvrouw, vrouw
year jaar


In some genealogical records, numbers are written out. This is especially true with dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Days of the month are written in ordinal form.

Cardinal Ordinal
1 een 1st eerste
2 twee 2nd tweede
3 drie 3rd derde
4 vier 4th vierde
5 vijf 5th vijfde
6 zes 6th zesde
7 zeven 7th zevende
8 acht 8th achtste
9 negen 9th negende
10 tien 10th tiende
11 elf 11th elfde
12 twaalf 12th twaalfde
13 dertien 13th dertiende
14 veertien 14th veertiende
15 vijftien 15th vijftiende
16 zestien 16th zestiende
17 zeventien 17th zeventiende
18 achttien 18th achttiende
19 negentie 19th negentiende
20 twintig 20th twintigste
21 eenentwintig 21st eenentwintigste
22 tweeëntwintig 22th tweeëntwintigste
23 drieentwintig 23th drieentwintigste
24 vierentwintig 24th vierentwintigste
25 vijfentwintig 25th vijfentwintigste
26 zesentwintig 26th zesentwintigste
27 zevenentwintig 27th zevenentwintigste
28 achtentwintig 28th achtentwintigste
29 negenentwintig 29th negenentwintigste
30 dertig 30th dertigste
31 eenendertig 31th eenendertigste
40 veertig 40th veertigste
50 vijftig 50th vijftigste
60 zestig 60th zestigste
70 zeventig 70th zevenstigte
80 tachtig 80th tachtigste
90 negentig 90th negentigste
100 honderd 100th honderdste
101 honderd(en)een 101st honderd(en)eerste
200 tweehonderd 200th tweehonderdste
1000 duizend 1000th duizendste

Dates and Time

In Dutch records, dates are often written out. For example:

Donderdag, drie en twintig maart in het jaar van onse heer een duizend acht hondert en zesendertig [Thursday, three and twenty March in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and six and thirty].

The names of months and days of the week are never capitalized in Dutch.

To understand Dutch dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.


English Dutch Archaic Form English Translation
January januari louwmaand tanning month
February februari sprokkelmaand wood-gathering month
March maart lentemaand spring month
April april grasmaand grass month
May mei bloeimaand blossom month
June juni zomermaand summer month
July juli hooimaand hay month
August augustus oogstmaand harvest month
September september (7ber) herfstmaand autumn month
October october (8ber) wijnmaand wine month
November november (9ber) slachtmaand slaughter month
December december (10ber) wintermaand winter month

Days of the Week

English Dutch
Sunday zondag
Monday maandag
Tuesday dinsdag
Wednesday woensdag
Thursday donderdag
Friday vrijdag
Saturday zaterdag

Times of the Day

Dutch birth and death records often indicated the time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.

Dutch English
des avonds ('s avonds) in the evening
des middags ('s middags) in the afternoon
des morgens ('s morgens) in the morning
des nachts ('s nachts) in the night
in de namiddag in the mid-afternoon
in de voormiddag in the mid-morning


akkerbouwer farmer
amanuensis amanuensis
apothekersbediende pharmacy clerk
arbeider worker
bakker baker
bakkersknecht baker's apprentice
banketbakker confectioner
barbier barber
bediende clerk
behanger paperhanger
besteller postman
beurtschipper skipper
bierbrouwer brewer
bierbrouwers knecht brewers servant
bleeker paler
blikslager tinsmith
boek drukkers gezel journeyman printers
boekbinder bookbinder
boekdrukker printer
boerenknecht farmhand
boschwachter woodranger
brievenbesteller postman
brievengaarder village postmaster
broodbakker baker
colporteur canvasser
conducteur conductor
daghuurder days tenant
dagloner day laborer
dekker roofer
dienstbode servant
dienstmeid maid servant
geneesheer physician
gepensioneerde pensioner
gepensioneerd soldaat retired soldier
gerechtsdienaar justiciary
goudsmid goldsmith
gruster  ??
hoefsmid blacksmith
horlogemaker watchmaker
houtzager sawyer
huisknecht servant
kaasmaker cheese maker
kantoorbediende clerk
kassier cashier
kastelein landlord
kastenmaker cabinet-maker
Kleermaker /kleedermaker/kledermaker tailor
koetsier coachman
koperslager coppersmith
kostschoolhouder container boarding
kramer pedlar, hawker
kruidenier knecht grocery servant
kuiper cooper
kurken snijder cork cutter
laagmolenaarsgezel low apprentice
ladelmaker label maker ??
landbouwer farmer
landeigenaar land owner
landmeter surveyor
leeraar teacher
leerlooier tanner
leestenmaker  ??
letterzetter compositor
logementhouder innkeeper
loodgieter plumber
meubelmaker joiner
molenaar miller
mutsenmaakster milliner
muziekonderwijzer music teacher
muzikant musician
muzijkmeester  ??
naaister seamstress
notaris notary
onderwijzer teacher
oppermachtmeester supremacy master
opperwachtmeester sergeant major
oppasser keeper
opzigter overseer
pakhuisknecht warehouseman
papiermaker papermaker
particulier private
pettenmaker hat maker
postbode mailman
pottenbakker potter
procureur attorneyd
rietdekker thatcher
scharenslijper grinder
scheepstimmerman shipwright
schilder painter
schoenmaker shoemaker
schrijnwerker joiner
shipper skipper
sjouwer porter
slager butcher
smid smith
spoorbeambte guard rail
spoorwegbeambte railway employee
stalhouder jobber,liveryman
steendrukker lithographer
steenfabriekant stone manufacturer side
steenhouwer stonemason
stoelenmaker chair maker
stratenmaker road worker
stroodekker straw decker
stukadoor plasterer
tabakshandelaar tobacco merchant
tabaksplanter tabacco farmer
timmerman carpenter
torenwachter watchman
touwslager rope-maker
turfdrager peat carrier
uitdrager broker
veearts veterinarian
veldwachter patrolman
verwer processing
visscher fisherman
voerman carter
voermandgezel food basket companion
voermansknecht carter servant
wagenmaker wagen maker or wheelwright
warmoezenier market
werkster aan den papiermolen worker at the paper mill
wethouder alderman
wijnhandelaar wine merchant
wijnkoopersgezel wine-merchant companion
wijnkoopersknecht wine-merchant's servant
winkelier shopkeeper (male)
winkelierster shopkeeper (female)
wisselwachter switchman
zadelmaker Saddler
zilversmid silversmith

Spelling and Grammar


In Dutch, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom, or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Dutch word. As you read Dutch records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.

The prefix t is equal to the Dutch word het, which means the. The prefix s- is a part of many place-names and means des (of the). All prefixes are disregarded in alphabetized lists, except in Flemish records.

The endings of words in a document may differ from what you find in this list. For example, the document may use the word jonger, but you will find it in this word list as jong. In addition, the suffixes -je, -tje,-tien, or -ke are often added to words to indicate "little." These suffixes can also indicate the feminine version of a name. Therefore, the word zoontje means "little" or "young (tje) son (zoon)." The ending -sdr means "daughter of."

Plural forms of Dutch words usually add -en or -s to the singular word. Thus boer (farmer) becomes boeren (farmers), and tafel (table or index) becomes tafels (tables or indexes). Rarely, -eren is added to form the plural. Examples: blad becomes bladeren (leaves [of a tree]), kind becomes kinderen (children).

In Dutch, many words are formed by joining two or more words. Very few of these compound words are included in this list. You will need to look up each part of the word separately. For example, geboortedag is a combination of two words, geboorte (birth) and dag (day).


IJ is equivalent to a Y. If a word whose first letter is to be capitalized starts with IJ, then both must be capitalized. Usually words beginning with IJ are alphabetized under Y, but not always.

When the Dutch alphabetize names of places or surnames, prefixes such as van der, de, or ter are not considered in the alphabetization.


ten Brock

van der Graf


van Hijden

de Jong

van Leeuwen

ter Pelkwijk

van IJlst

't Zandt


Most writers from before the 18th century would have found the idea of a single spelling for any particular word rather odd. If several possible spelling variants are available, why should one be limited to only one choice? Early writers certainly took advantage of the many possibilities available to them. After all, variety is the spice of life. In modern Dutch, the sound represented by the English word ‘I’ can be rendered by several letter sets, including ‘ij’ and ‘ei.’ Again, writers from previous centuries could and did use either of these in addition to several others that are not in common use today to render the ‘I’ sound.

y, i, ij and j can all be interchanged for each other. Note that technically the letter y did not traditionally exist in Dutch.
g used for ch
d, dt and t can all be interchanged for each other.
j and i used interchangeably
s and z used interchangeably
sch used for ss
vowels (a,e,o,i,u) being repeated, and vice-versa
Abbreviations being used such as 't for het, 's for des.
echt spelled as egt
overlijden spelled as overlyden
Arie spelled as Arij
Marietje spelled as Marietie
gekomen spelled as gekoomen
zondag spelled as sondag
Tussenbroek spelled as Tusschenbroek

In the vast majority of cases, the variant spellings represent the same pronunciation as the standard form. Some are simply antiquated; others are dialect forms. We will not consider personal names or words that have Latin endings, such as ‘Aprilis.’ We will, however, consider some place names.  The traditional dialect of northern Germany, Low German, is very closely related to Dutch.

The researcher should not be alarmed, nor think the scribe ‘did not know how to spell,’ when he encounters these variants. Many of these variants will be found well into the 19th century. In some cases, it is impossible to tell whether the scribe wrote ‘ij’ or ‘y’. Although we list a few of these, to list every possible variation with this set would be superfluous.[1]

Standard Dutch Variant
aangenomen aen genoomen
acht agt
achttien agtien
avondtmael, avontmael
ambtenaar ambtenaer
august oogst
Christelijke crijstelijcke
dag dagh, dach
dertien dartien
dertig dartig
dezes deses
Dinsdag Dingsdag
dochter dogter
dochtertje Dogtertje
door dooir
duizend duizent, duyzend
een ëen
februari feeberijuarij
geboren gebooren
geboorte Gheboorte
gebracht gebragt
gekocht gecogt
gekomen geekomen
gedoopt gedooipt
gekomen gekoomen
genaamt  genaemt, genaemd, genaempt
geslacht geslagt
gestorven gestoruen
getuigen getuygen, getuijgen 
gevluchte gevlugte
heden heeden
huisvrouw huijsvrouw, huysvrouwe, huÿsvrouw
huwelijk houwelijk
jaar jaer, jaere
jaren jaeren
januari January
juni Junij
kerk kerck
kind kindt, kinnd
kleermaker kledermaker
knecht knegt
laten laeten
ledematen leedematen,leede maten, leede maaet
licht ligt
maand maend
maandag maendag
maart maert, meert
-maker -maacker
mei Maaij
metselaar metzelaar
mochten mogten
naar naer
's nachts 's nachs
namen (noun) naemen
negentig t'negentig
nemen neemen
november nohvembr
onecht onegt
ontvangen ontfangen
Oostvlaanderen Oostvlaenderen
oud oudt
paard peerd
personen paersoone
plaats plaets
raad raed, raedt
rechter regter
sedert zeedert
soldaat zoldaat
tachtig tagtig
tijd teyd
tussen tuschen, tusschen 
vader vaader
verklaard verklaerd
verstorven verstoruen, uerstoruen, versturven, voorstoruen,

voor storuen

verzocht verzogt
vijftig vyftig
vleeschhouwer vleeshouwer
volmacht volmagt
vrijdag Vrydag
wezen weezen
woonachtig wonagtig, woonachtigh
zaterdag Saterdag
zelven selven
zestig tsestig
zeven seven, zeeven, seeven
zeventien seventien
zich zig
zijn sijn, syn, zyn
zijne syne
zoon soon, sone, soone
zuster susther

Additional Resources

For further help, use a Dutch-English dictionary. Several Dutch-English dictionaries are available at the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. Their call numbers begin with 439.31321.

The following dictionary is available on microfilm for use in Family History Centers:

Dutch-English, English-Dutch Van Goor Dictionary. 's-Gravenhage: G. B. Van Goor, 1938. (FHL film 1183584 item 2.)

Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject search of the FamilySearch Catalog under DUTCH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the Place search under NETHERLANDS - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES. These include dictionaries of various dialects and time periods.

On the following Internet address Integrated Language Bank you can find: a modern Dutch dictionary, old, early Middle Ages and later Middle Ages Dutch dictionaries and a Frisian dictionary.

The File:German Gothic Handwriting Guide.pdfincludes an example of the German (Gothic) alphabet in print and handwriting. Also go to Germany Handwriting.

See the FamilySearch Tutorials on "Reading Dutch Written Records" 

Cassell’s English–Dutch Dutch–English Dictionary. 36th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1981. (FHL book 439.31321 Ca272.)

Stierp–Impink, A. C. Practisijns Woordenboekje, of Verzameling van Meest alle de Woorden in de Rechtskunde Gebruikelijk (Lawyer’s Dictionary, or List of Most Words Used in Legal Documents). Alkmaar: A. C. Stierp–Impink, 1985. (FHL book 949.2 P26s.) This legal dictionary, originally created in 1785, identifies words found in court, land, notarial, and guardianship records.

Verdam, J. Middelnederlandsch Handwoordenboek (Middle Dutch Dictionary). ’s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964. (FHL book 439.317 V582m; film 1045404 item 2.) This dictionary will help with most archaic words found in documents before 1811.

Additional language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place search of the FamilySearch Catalog under:



or in the "Subject Search" under:


Alphabetical Wordlist


Dutch English
aan upon, to
aangenomen naam named, alias, also known as, assumed name, accepted surname
aannemen to adopt (a child), to assume, to take on
aanneming confirmation
aannemingsdag day of confirmation
aanstaande next, toward, following, expectant, future, impending
aanval stroke, attack
aarde earth (buried in), ground
aardrijkskundig woordenboek gazetteer
acht eight
achtenswaardig respectable, honorable
achtentwintig twenty-eight
achtentwintigste twenty-eighth
achterkleindochter great-granddaughter
achterkleinzoon great-grandson
achternaam surname, last name
achtste eighth
achttien eighteen
achttiende eighteenth
adel nobility
adellijk noble, titled
aderlating bleeding, bloodletting
adresboek directory
advocaat notary, lawyer
afkondigen to post banns
afkondigingen proclamations, banns
afschrift(en) extract, duplicate record, transcript, certified copy
afwezig absent
akte certificate, deed, license
alhier here, at this place, locally
alle all, every
alleen alone, single, only
altijd, steeds always
ambt office, function, post
ambtelijk official, professional
ambtenaar official, registrar, civil servant, clerk
ander(s) other
anders genoemd alias, also known as
angiften intentions (marriage), declarations
Apostolisch Apostolic
April, april April
arbeider laborer
archief archive
archieven archives
Augustus, augustus August
avond ('s avonds) evening, (in the evening)
Avondmaal communion, sacrament


Dutch English
bad(plaats) resort, spa, bath
baker dry nurse
bakker baker
bedelaar beggar
bedrag fee, amount (of money)
bedrijf trade, business, concern
begraafplaats cemetery
begrafenis funeral
begraven to bury
behoeftigden needy, indigent
behoren to belong to
beide both
bejaard aged
bekende acquaintance
belasting taxation
Belg(isch) Belgian
België Belgium
bemerking remarks
benadering approximation
berg mountain
beroep trade, occupation
beschrijving description
beslagnemen to seize
besnijdenis circumcision
bestedelingenhuis poorhouse
bet-overgrootvader second great-grandfather
bet-bet-overgrootvader third great-grandfather
betrekking in relation to, relatives
betuiging declaration, expression
bevolking population
bevolkingsregister population register
bewaarder guardian, warden
bewijs certificate, proof
bewijs van overlijden proof of death, death certificate
bewijs van trouwen proof of marriage, marriage certificate
bidden to pray, to request
bijlagen supplemental documents
bijna almost, nearly
bijnaam surname, nickname
bijzit mistress, concubine
binnenkant inside
biografie biography
bisdom diocese
bladzijde (blz.) page
bloedverwant blood relative
bloeimaand blossoming month, May
boek book
boer farmer
boerenarbeider cottager, farmhand, worker
boerenknecht farm worker
bos woods, forest
bosbaas forester
bosch woods, forest (old spelling of the word)
boswachter forester
boven above, over, upstairs
bovengemelden above-mentioned
braaf honest, worthy, good
broeder, broer brother
brouwer brewer
brug bridge
bruid bride
bruidegom bridegroom
buiten without
buiten(kant) outside
buitenechtelijk illegitimate
burgemeester mayor
burgelijke administralie civil administration
burger citizen
burgerboek citizenship book
burgerlijke ambtenaar civil registrar
burgerlijke stand civil registration, civil administration
burgerschap citizenship
buurman neighbor
buurtschap neighborhood


Dutch English
communicanten members, communicants
comparant one who appeared
compareerde appeared before
confirmatie confirmation


Dutch English
daar(heen) there
dag day
dag der begravenis day of the burial, burial day
dagelijks daily
dagloner day worker, day laborer
dagteekening document date
dal valley
dat that
datum date
de the
December, december December
deden done
deed did
deel volume, part of
Deen Dane
Deens Danish
degenen those
Denemarken Denmark
derde third
dertien thirteen
dertiende thirteenth
dertig thirty
dertigste thirtieth
des of the
dewelke of which, the which
deze this, these
diarree diarrhea
die those, that
dienst service, employment
dienstbode servant
dienstmeisje servant girl
dienstsmeid maid
dinsdag Tuesday
diocees diocese
dit this
dochter(tje) (little) daughter
doen to do
dominee minister
donderdag Thursday
dood dead
dood geboren stillborn
doodgraver sexton, grave digger
doop baptism, christening
doopdag day of baptism
doopregister baptismal register
Doopsgezinde Mennonite, Baptist
doopvader godfather, baptismal sponsor
door through, by
dopen to baptize
dorp village
drie three
drieëntwintig twenty-three
drieëntwintigste twenty-third
drupped gout
duits German (language)
duitser German (person)
Duitsland Germany
duizend thousand
duizendste thousandth
duplicaat duplicate
dysenterie dysentery


Dutch English
echt marriage
echtbreker adulterer
echtelieden spouses
echtgenoot husband
echtgenote wife
echtgenoten husband and wife, spouses
echtscheiding divorce
echtverbintenis marriage
edel(man) noble(man)
een a, an, one
eenendertig thirty-one
eenendertigste thirty-first
eenentwintig twenty-one
eenjarig annual, yearly
eerder before, previously, earlier
eergisteren day before yesterday
eerlijk honest
eertijds formerly
eeuw century
ehelieden spouses
eigenaar owner, proprietor
eigengeërfde yeoman, freeholder
eiland, eilant island
elf eleven
elfde eleventh
elk each, every
emigrant emigrant
emigranten register emigration file
emigratie papieren emigration records
en and
enig only, single
erfenis inheritance
erkennende recognizing, acknowledging
ervan of it
ervoor for it
Evangelisch evangelical


Dutch English
fabriek factory, mill
familie-geschiedenis family history
familieleden family members,relatives
familielijst family list, group sheet
familienaam family name, surname
familiewapen familycoat of arms
Februarij, februari February
feestdag feast day, holiday
fiches index cards
florijn guilder
Frankrijk France
frans French


Dutch English
gangbaar current
geboorte birth
geboorteakte birth certificate
geboortebewijs proof of birth,birth certificate
geboorteplaats place of birth
geboortetijd time of birth
geboortig born at, native of
geboren born, maiden name, née
gebracht brought, placed, charged, put, been
gedelegeerden delegate, delegates, delegates to
gedoopt baptized, christened
geelzucht jaundice
geen no, none, without
geestelijke priest, clergyman
gegeven given, gave
gehucht hamlet
gehuwd married
geld money
gelegitimeerd legitimized
gelijk same, alike, similar
gemeenschap community, township
gemeente town, municipality, parish
gemeenteraadslid councilman, town councilor
genaamd named
genaamt named
genealogie genealogy
genoemden named, mentioned
gerechtelijk(e) court, judicial
gerechtshof judicial court
Gereformeerd(e) Calvinist Reformed
gering small
gescheiden divorced
geschenk deed, gift, present
geschiedenis history
geslacht sex, gender
geslachtsboom pedigree, family tree
gestorven died
gestorven zonder nageslacht died without issue
geteekend signed, drew
getranscribeerd transcribed
getrouwd married
getuigen witnesses
gewesen former
gezegend blessed, the deceased
gezin immediate family
gezindheid religious affiliation
gezinslijst family group sheet
gezwel, gezwollenheid swelling, tumor
gezworene juryman, person under oath
gisteren yesterday
Godsbeschikking dispensation, God's will
godsdienst religion
goed good, right, correct
graaf count, earl
graafschap county, shire
graf grave, tomb
grasmaand gras month,April
grens border (between countries)
grensgebied border, region
groen green
groet greet, greeting
grondeigenaren property owners
groot large, big, great
groothandelaar trader, merchant
grootmoeder grandmother
grootvader grandfather
gulden guilder (unit of money)


Dutch English
haar, hare hair, her, hers
had(den) had
half half
halfbroeder half brother
halfzuster half sister
handel trade, occupation
handtekening signature
handwerksgezel journeyman
hebben to have
heden today
heel all, whole, entire, complete
heer master, gentleman, Mr.
Heer the Lord
heerschappen gentry, lords
hem him
hen, hun them, their, theirs
herbergier innkeeper
herder shepherd
herfst autumn, fall
herfstmaand fall month, September
Hernhutter Moravian
hertog duke
hertogdom duchy
hertogin duchess
Hervormd(e) Dutch reformed
Hessisch Hessian
het it, the
heuvel hill
hij he
hoe how
hoer harlot, immoral woman
hoesten cough
hoger upper, higher
hollands Dutch
honderd hundred
honderdste hundredth
hoofdplaats capital
hoog high
hooimaand hay month, July
houtvester forester
huidziekte measles
huis house
huisgezin immediate family
huishoudster housekeeper
huisland home, native country, homeland
huisvrouw housewife
huizenkant inside, side of a house
hun their
huwelijksaangiften marriage intention
huwelijk marriage
huwelijksaf(aan)-kondigingen marriage banns
huwelijksbijlagen marriage supplements
huwelijksdag day of marriage
huwelijksfeest wedding
huwen to marry


Dutch English
immigrant immigrant
in in
ingekomen arrival, immigration
ingezetenen citizen, occupants
inhoud contents
inschrijvingen registers
inwoner inhabitant, citizen
is is
italiaans Italian
Italië Italy


Dutch English
jaar, jaren year, years
jaarlijks annual, yearly
jager hunter
Januarij, januari January
j.d. (jonge dochter) unmarried daughter
j.g. (jong gezel) young man, bachelor
jicht gout
j.m. (jonge man) young man, bachelor
jong(e) young
jongeling a youth, unmarried man
jongen boy
Jood Jew
joods(e) Jewish
juffrouw Miss, Madame
Julij, juli July
Junij, juni June


Dutch English
kamer room (in a house)
kan can
kanaal canal
kanker cancer
kantwerkster lacemaker
karman coachman
kasteel castle
Katholiek Catholic
keizerlijk imperial
keizerrijk empire
kerk church
kerkboek church book, parish register
kerkelijk(e) church (pertaining to church)
kerkelijk ambt parish office
kerkeraads-handelingen church minutes
kerkgenootschap religious affiliation
kerk meester church warden
kerk voogt church warden
kil stream, brook
kind, kinderen child, children
kinkhoest whooping cough
klapper index
kledinghandelaar clothier
kleermaker tailor
klein little, small
kleindochter granddaughter
kleiner smaller, lesser
kleinzoon grandson
klompenmaker wooden shoemaker
km. kilometer
knecht servant, laborer, journeyman
kohier(en) register(s), ledger(s)
koning king
koningin queen
koninklijk royal
koninkrijk kingdom
koopman buyer, seller, vendor, trader, merchant
kopen to buy
koperslager coppersmith
koster sexton
kraambed childbed
kraambed gestorven died in childbirth
kraambedkoorts puerperal fever, childbed fever
kramer seller, vendor, peddler
krampachtig convulsions
krampen cramps, convulsions
krijgen to receive
kuiper cooper
kunnen could
kwaal disease, complaint
kwaliteit status, quality
kwartierstaat pedigree, family tree


Dutch English
laat, laatste tijd late (in the day), lately
laatste latter, last
lakenvoller (-volder) clothier, fuller
land land, country
landbouwer farmer
landgoed, landbezit estate
landkaart map
landlieden farmers
landman cottager, farmer
land verlatend emigrant
laten to let, leave, allow
leeftijd age
leerjongen apprentice
leerling student, apprentice, pupil
leerlooier tanner
leggen to place, put, impose, to lay
lente spring (season)
lentemaand spring month, March
leven to live
levend living
levenloos without life, stillborn
levens-beschrijving biography
lidmaten members, membership
linker hand left hand
links left (direction)
linnenwever linen weaver
logementhouder innkeeper
longontsteking pneumonia
longtering consumption, tuberculosis
looier tanner
louwmaand January
Lutheraan, Luthers Lutheran
lijk corpse
lijnslager rope maker


Dutch English
maagd virgin, maid, servant girl
maand month
maandag Monday
maar but
Maart March
mag may (might)
makelaar registers real estate registers
man husband, man
mannelijk male
markt market
mazelen measles
meer lake, more
meerderjarige of legal age
Meij, mei May
meier tenant farmer, bailiff
meisje girl
melkerij milk factory, dairy
melkfabriek milk factory, dairy
mengel (mingel) liquid measure, about one to two quarts
met with
met name named, alias
metselaar mason, bricklayer
meu aunt
meubelmaker furniture maker
middag ('s middags) afternoon (in the afternoon)
middernacht midnight
mijnheer Mr.
mijnwerker miner
militaire military
minderjarige minor, below legal age
misschien maybe, perhaps
missen to miss, lack
mocht might
moeder mother
moet(en) must
mogen may (might have), to allow
molen mill
mondig verklaring declaration of being of legal age
morgen unit of land area, about two acres
morgen ('s morgens) morning, tomorrow (in the morning)
mijl mile (varying lengths, up to 5.5 km.)


Dutch English
na after
naaister seamstress
naam name
naar to, toward, for, according to
naar gelang van to, after, according to
naast beside, following, next (to)
nabijkomen approach, approximate
nabuur neighbor
nacht ('s nachts) night (in the night)
namen names
namiddag, ('s namiddags) afternoon (in the afternoon)
nanoen afternoon
neder low, lower (directional)
Nederland the Netherlands
nederlands Dutch
neef nephew, male cousin
neefje nephew, young male cousin
neffens next, in addition to
negen nine
negende ninth
negenentwintig twenty-nine
negenentwintigste twenty-ninth
negentien nineteen
negentiende nineteenth
negentig ninety
negentigste ninetieth
neger Negro
nicht niece, female cousin
nichtje niece, young female cousin
niet(s) no, none, not
niets nothing
nieuw new
nimmer never
noemen to christen, call, name
nog still, yet, other
nog in leven still living, surviving
nommer, nummer number
nooit never
noor(s) Norwegian
noord north
Noorwegen Norway
notaris notary
november November


Dutch English
october October
of or
om for, because of, at, round
oma grandma
omstreeks about, around
on- un- (prefix)
onbekend unknown
onder under
ondergetekende the undersigned
ondertrouw betrothal (already registered)
onderwijzer (school) teacher
onderwijzeres female teacher
onecht kind illegitimate child
ongehuwd unmarried
ongeleerdheid illiterate, unlearned
ongetrouwd single, unmarried
ongeveer almost, approximately
onkunde inability, incompetence, ignorance, ignorance of
onmiddellijk right away, immediately
onmondigen minor, under age
ons, onze us, our
ontvangen to receive, received
ontvanger tax collector
onwettig illegitimate, illegal
onze, ons us, our
opgesteld drafted
oogstmaand harvest month, August
ook also
oom uncle
oorkonden records, documents
oost east
op on, upon
opa grandpa
opgetreden appeared
op heden today, on this day
op hoge leeftijd at a great (old) age
opnemen to receive
opper upper
oprecht honest
optreden to appear
opziener overseer, inspector, guardian
organisatie organization, society
oud old (age)
ouder older, elder
ouderdom age
ouders parents
oudoom great-uncle
oudste eldest
oudtante great-aunt
over above, over, via
overeenkomst contract, agreement
overgrootmoeder great-grandmother
overgrootvader great-grandfather
overleden dead, deceased
overledene, de the deceased
overlevenden survivors
overlijden to die
overnemen to take over, adopt (an action)
overschrijven to extract


Dutch English
pachter tenant farmer, leaser, one who leases
pachter (van belastingen) publican, tax collector
Palts, de the Palatinate
Paltsgraafschap count palatine (the place)
paltsgrafelijk (from the) palatinate
parochie parish
parochieregisters parish registers
Pasen Easter, Passover
Pascha Passover
pastoor pastor, priest (Roman Catholic church)
patroon manor lord, patron, employer
peet godfather, godparent, sponsor
peetoom godfather
peettante godmother
pensionering retirement
pest plague, pestilence
petemoei godmother
peten godparents
plaag plague, scourge
plaats place
planter planter, farmer
pokken smallpox
Polen Poland, Poles
pools Polish
poorter citizen, freeman
poortersboeken burgher registers
portugees Portuguese
predikant minister, clergyman (Protestant church)
prins prince
prinses princess
protestant protestant
protocol document, register
provinciaal provincial
provincie provinces
Pruis(isch) Prussian
Pruissen Prussia



Dutch English
raad council, counsel
recht right (correct), straight, law, justice
rechter judge, magistrate
rechter(zijde) right side
rechter hand right hand
rechterlijk legal, court (judicial)
rechtmatig rightful, right (correct)
rechts right (direction)
regering government, administration
rekeningen accounts, bills
rentenier retired tradesperson, man of means
rivier river
roede rod (unit of length, about twelve feet or 3.6 meters)
rond around, about
rood red
roodvonk scarlet fever
Rooms Katholiek Roman Catholic
ruim [ruim 80 = eighty plus years old] large, broad, wide, upwards of
Rus(sisch) Russian
Rusland Russia
rijk empire, kingdom, rich, wealthy
rijksarchief national and/or state archive, public record office


Dutch English
s = des of the Sakser Saxon
samen together
schaapherder shepherd
scheeps of a ship (the ship's)
schenking donation, gift
schepen alderman, magistrate, ships
schepenakten city council records
schilder painter
schip ship
schipper barge man, boatman, skipper
schlepel unit of measure, about .7 to 1.3 bushels
schoenmaker shoemaker
school school
schoondochter daughter-in-law
schoonzoon son-in-law
schoonzuster sister-in-law
schriftgeleerde scribe
schrijnwerker cabinet maker, joiner
schrijver scribe, writer, author
schuit barge, boat
September September
sinds(dien) since
slachter, slager butcher
slachtmaand slaughter month, November
slag hit, stroke, blow
slager, slachter butcher
slechts but, only, merely
sloot ditch
slot lock, castle
slotenmaker locksmith
smid (black)smith
soldaat soldier
soms sometimes, besides, in addition to
spaans Spanish
Spanjaard Spaniard
Spanje Spain
spoedig quickly, soon, speedy
sprokkelmaand wood gathering month, February
staat state
staats of the state
staatsburger citizen
stad city, town
stamboeken lineage books, genealogical register
stamboom pedigree
steeds always, still
steenbakker brick maker, stone mason
stellen to place, put, impose
sterven to die
stief- step-
straat street
stroom stream, river


Dutch English
t = het the
taal language
tachtig eighty
tachtigste eightieth
tafel index, table
tanden krijgen getting teeth, teething
tante aunt
te at, to
tegelijk together, at the same time
tegen(over) against, across
tegenwoordigheid presence, the presence of
te huis at home
teraardebestelling burial, interment
testament last will, testament
thuis at home
tien ten
tiende tithing
tiende tenth
tienjarige tafels ten-year (decennial) index
tiental decade
tiental dagen about ten days
tijd time
tijdelijk temporary
tijdschrift periodical
timmerman carpenter
toekomend future, next
toekomstig future, prostpective
toenaam surname
toestaan to let, grant, allow
toestemmen to consent
touwslager rope maker
trouwboek marriage book
trouwdag wedding day
trouwen to marry
tuberculose consumption, tuberculosis
tuin garden, yard
tuinman, tuinier gardener
tussen between
twaalf twelve
twaalfde twelfth
twee two
tweede second
tweeëntwintig twenty-two
tweeëntwintigste twenty-second
tweeling twins
twintig twenty
twintigste twentieth
tyfus typhoid fever
tyfuslijder typhoid patient


Dutch English
uit out of, from
uiterlijk outward, external, appearance, at the latest
uitgeven to publish
uittrekken extract
uur hour, o'clock


Dutch English
vaak often
vader father
vallende ziekte epilepsy
van from, of
veehoeder herdsman
veertien fourteen
veertiende fourteenth
veertig forty
veertigste fortieth
veld field
veldwachter constable, policeman, patrolman, village policeman
verdrinking drowning
vergunning permission
verjaardag birthday
verklaard declared
verklaren to declare
verklaring declaration, affidavit, sworn statement
verkondigen publish (as in banns), proclaim
verlamming paralysis, stroke
verlaten to leave, left
verleden past
verlof leave (soldier's), permission
verloofd betrothed, engaged
verloofde(n) engaged person(s), fiancée, fiancé
verloving betrothal, engagement
verpandings-kohieren tax ledger
verscheiden to pass away or die, various, different
verschijnt appears
verstopping obstruction, blockage
vertering consumption, tuberculosis
vertrokken departed, moved, gone away
verver dyer, house painter
verwantschap relationship
verwijderen to remove, to withdraw
vestigen to settle, establish
vesting fortress
vier four
vierde fourth
vierentwintig twenty-four
vierentwintigste twenty-fourth
vijf five
vijfde fifth
vijfentwintig twenty-five
vijfentwintigste twenty-fifth
vijftien fifteen
vijftiende fifteenth
vijftig fifty
vijftigste fiftieth
visser fisherman
vleeshouwer butcher
vlij marsh, swamp
V.O.C. Dutch East Indies Company
voerman coachman
volbracht performed, completed, finished
volbrengen to finish, complete
volgend following, next
volgende dag (the) following day
volgens to, after, according to, follows
volkstelling census, population records
volmacht authorization
voltooien to finish, complete
voltrekkingen solemnization
vondeling foundling
voogd guardian
voor for, in front of, before
vooraf(gang) previous, preceding
voorafgaand former
voorafgaande dag the previous day
voorbij past, beyond, over
voorbij gaan gone by
voorgaand previous, preceding
voorheen previous, formerly, in former days
voorjaar spring (season)
voorlezing reading, reading aloud
voormeld before mentioned, said, stated
voormiddag morning, forenoon (in the morning)
voornaam given name
voornoemde above-mentioned, aforesaid
voorouder ancestor
voortekening over his signature
voorts furthermore, moreover, further, addition, also
voortgebracht produced, generated, produced in, brought forth, emitted
voorvader ancestor, forefather
vorig previous, preceding
vorige dag previous day
vormer framer, molder
vormsel Catholic confirmation
vorst monarch, sovereign, ruler
vorstendom principality
vreemd foreign, strange
vriend friend
vrijboer farmer owner
vrijdag Friday
vrijgezel bachelor
vroedmeester man who assists in childbirth
vroedvrouw midwife
vroeg(tijdig) early (a.m.), prematurely, untimely
vroeger formerly, earlier
vrouw woman, wife, Mrs.
vrouw(spersoon) wife, woman, female
vrouwelijk female
V.W.C. Dutch West Indies Company


Dutch English
waar where
waaraan which
waarheen where to
waarom why
wagenmaker cartwright, wagon builder, coach builder
wanneer when
wapen heraldic crest, coat of arms
waren were, goods
was was
wat what, how
waterzucht dropsy
weduwe widow
weduwnaar widower
week week
weeskamer orphan's court
weeskind orphan
wegens because of
weinig little, small, few
welk(e) which
wellicht maybe, perhaps
werkman laborer
west west
wet law
wethouder alderman
wettelijk legal
wettelijk kind legitimate child
wettig lawful, legal
wever weaver
wie who
wieldraaijer wheelwright
wij we
wijk district, area, section, ward
wijlen late (deceased), the late, blessed
wijnmaand wine month, October
wil will, desire, wish, consent
wilde(n) Indian(s) (in New York), savage(s)
willen to want to
winkelier(ster) shopkeeper male (female)
winter winter
wintermaand winter month, December
wit white
woensdag Wednesday
wonende residing
woonachtig resident, living at
woonplaats residence, domicile, dwelling place
woordenboek dictionary
worden to become, be
woud forest




Dutch English
ijs ice
IJsland Iceland
ijzer iron
ijzer smelterij iron foundry
ijzersmid smith, blacksmith
ijzerwaren hardware
ijzerwerker ironworker


Dutch English
zaken trade, business, case, affairs
zaterdag Saturday
ze they, she
zeeman sailor
zeepzieder soap maker
zelfde the same
zes six
zesde sixth
zesentwintig twenty-six
zesentwintigste twenty-sixth
zestien sixteen
zestiende sixteenth
zestig sixty
zestigste sixtieth
zetten to place, put, impose
zeven seven
zevende seventh
zevenentwintig twenty-seven
zevenentwintigste twenty-seventh
zevenstigte seventieth
zeventien seventeen
zeventiende seventeenth
zeventig seventy
zie see
ziekte disease, illness
zij she, they
zijn its, his, to be, are
zijrivier tributary, river, stream
zomer summer
zomermaand summer month, June
zondag Sunday
zonder without
zoon son
zoontje little son, small son
zou should
zuid south
zuigeling baby, suckling
zuivelboer dairy farmer
zuster sister
zwager brother-in-law
zwakheid weakness
zwakte weak
zwanger pregnant
zwart black
zwarten Negroes, blacks
Zweden Sweden
zweeds Swedish
zwelling swelling, tumor
Zwitserland Switzerland
zwitsers Swiss


  1. Juengling, Fritz. "Spelling Variants in Dutch Documents." Dutch-American Genealogy Spring 2015: 1-8.