East Timor History
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History[edit | edit source]
Indonesia it self has been settled for many Millennia, and was always considered a part of that country until very recent times.
Descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to live in this portion of Indonesia. The first were related to the principal Australoid indigenous groups of New Guinea and Australia, and arrived more than 40,000 years ago. Around 3000 BC, Austronesians migrated to Indonesia, and are thought to be associated with the development of agriculture on the island.
The Portuguese established outposts in Timor and Maluku. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory began in 1769, when the city of Dili was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared. A definitive border between the Dutch-colonised western half of the island and the Portuguese-colonised eastern half of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration of 1914, and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor and Indonesia.
After WWII, Portugal abandoned any claims to east Timor, and a series of brutal uprisings occurred between the East Timorese and the Indonesian Government.
In late 1999, the administration of East Timor was taken over by the UN through the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor. The INTERFET deployment ended in February 2000 with the transfer of military command to the UN. By May 2002, over 205,000 refugees had returned, and East Timorese independence was formalized on 20 May 2002
Timeline[edit | edit source]
1769 - Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory, when the city of Dili was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared
1914 - A definitive border between the Dutch-colonised western half of the island and the Portuguese-colonised eastern half of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration
1974 - Portugal effectively abandoned its colony on Timor and civil war between East Timorese political parties broke out
1974 - 1999 The Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a minimum of 102,800 conflict-related deaths during this period
1975 - The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor resisted a Timorese Democratic Union coup attempt and unilaterally declared independence
1976 - Indonesia declared East Timor its 27th province
1991 - Dili Massacre
2002 - East Timor was renamed to Timor-Leste, using the Portuguese language, and was admitted as a member state by the UN
2006 - The United Nations sent in security forces to restore order when unrest and factional fighting forced 155,000 people to flee their homes
2012 - The United Nations ended its peacekeeping mission