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History[edit | edit source]
several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, and subsequently the Soviet Union.
On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighboring states, the country, has been criticized by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom, corruption and widespread violations of human rights.
Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik which is a dialect of Persian. Many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production.
Timeline[edit | edit source]
1864 - 1885 Russia gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestan
1917 - The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war with guerrillas throughout Central Asia, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population was heavily suppressed
1927 -1934 and 1937 - 1938 Two rounds of Soviet purges directed by Moscow resulted in the expulsion of nearly 10,000 people, from all levels of the Communist Party of Tajikistan
1939 - 1942 Between 60,000 and 120,000 of Tajikistan's 1,530,000 citizens were killed during World War II
1991 - The nation almost immediately fell into civil war that involved various factions fighting one another; these factions were often distinguished by clan loyalties and more than 500,000 residents fled during this time because of persecution and increased poverty
1992 - Elections took place shortly after the end of the war, and Tajikistan was in a state of complete devastation. The estimated dead numbered over 100,000. Around 1.2 million people were refugees inside and outside of the country