Difference between revisions of "Vietnam History"

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==History==
 
==History==
The historical peoples of Annam (now located in central Vietnam) after many years of contact with the Chinese culture were conquered by China about 214 B.C.  The Annamese remained subject to China (with several brief interruptions after 923) until 1428 when they formed an independent kingdom.  The kingdom included Tonkin in the north. The Cham kingdom in the south-central area was added in 1472.
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During the 3rd century BC, ancient Vietnamese people inhabited modern-day northern Vietnam and established the state of Âu Lạc. The independent state was annexed by Nam Việt in 179 BC. Nam Việt was subsequently annexed by the Han Empire and became part of Imperial China for over a millennium from 111 BC to 939 AD. An independent Vietnamese state emerged in 939 following Vietnamese victory in the battle of Bạch Đằng against the Southern Han. Successive Vietnamese imperial dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia until the Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century.
  
Cochin China (now in southern Vietnam) for many centuries formed part of the Khmer Empire, and was influenced by the Indian sphere of culture.  The Annamese gradually increased their influence in the South, competing at times with the French,  until 1750 when they became masters of that region as well.
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French Indochina saw the Japanese occupation in 1940 amidst the escalation of World War II. Following Japanese defeat in 1945, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War. On 2 September 1945, Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared Vietnam's independence from France and therefrom established a provisional communist state. After nine years of war, the Vietnamese declared victory in the decisive battle of Điện Biên Phủ in 1954. The nation was thereafter divided into two rival states, communist North—the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and anti-communist South—the Republic of Vietnam. Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War with extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1973. The war ended with North Vietnamese victory in 1975.
 
 
The Annamese dynasty split in 1558 into central (ruled from Hue) and northern (ruled from Hanoi) lines that were not united until Emperor Gia Long in 1802 signed a treaty with the French whereby he obtained assistance in establishing his new empire.  Long’s successors, however, followed isolationist policies and mistreated French nationals and Christian converts.  This opened the way for French military intervention.  In 1858 the French seized Cochin China and established it as a colony.  Tonkin accepted a French protectorate status in 1882, opting for this rather than being taken by China, their traditional adversary.  In 1884 a French protectorate was established over Annam as well.  In 1887 the three areas together with Cambodia were united to form the Union of French Indochina. Laos was added to Indochina in 1893.
 
 
 
By the 1930s these areas were lobbying strongly for independence.  The French proposed a Federation of states in Indochina within the French Union.  This was accepted by Cambodia and Laos, but Annamese nationals demanded total independence.  In the Second World War Indochina was occupied by the Japanese who set up the autonomous state of Viet Nam comprising Tonkin, Annam, and Cochin China.  The last Annamese emperor Bao Dai was established as ruler. After the war, his regime quickly collapsed and the Viet Minh coalition of nationalists and communists headed by Ho Chi Minh, original name:  Nguyen Ai Quoc (1890-1969) set up a republic with its capital at Hanoi.  The French recognized the new republic, with the object of keeping it within the Union of French Indochina.  When the Viet Minh rejected their offer, the French refused to let Cochin China in the South become part of the new republic.  After three years of negotiating and fighting with the Viet Minh the French decided to establish their own republic which also claimed all of Vietnam.  They reestablished Bao Dai as the leader, who ruled from France. 
 
 
 
When the French forces were defeated at Dienbienphu in 1954, they were forced to withdraw their territorial claims to the country. The Geneva convention divided Vietnam into separate North and South republics.  750,000 Catholics and others with western ties fled to the South.  In 1961 the United States came to the aid of the South to resist Northern insurgency and full scale guerrilla war developed.  In 1973 an agreement was signed ending the war in Vietnam.  Hostilities continued however until 1975 when the South was defeated.  Reunification of the country took place July 2, 1976.  Hundreds of thousands of refugees fled the country, including 400,000 who returned to China. Many records were lost or destroyed in the wars.  In 1995 Vietnam and the United States officially normalized relations and Vietnam became a member of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations), and the United Nations, and signed a trade agreement with the European Union.<ref name="profile">The Family History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Family History Record Profile: Vietnam,” Word document, private files of the FamilySearch Content Strategy Team, 2001.</ref>
 
  
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North and South Vietnam were then reunified under a communist government in 1976. The newly established country remained impoverished and politically isolated until 1986 when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into the world economy. By 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries.
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<br>
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[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam]
 
==Timeline==
 
==Timeline==
 
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1615 –1753 French traders engaged in trade in the area around Đàng Trong and actively spreading missionaries<br>
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1859 - 1885 Vietnam's kingdom independence was gradually eroded by France which was aided by the Spanish and large Catholic militias in a series of military conquests<br>
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1884 - The entire country had come under French rule<br>
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1887 - The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina<br>
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1940 -The war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina<br>
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1945 - The Vietnamese Famine was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam in French Indochina during World War II from October 1944 to late 1945.  Between 400,000 and 2 million people are estimated to have starved to death during this time<br>
 +
1954 - French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accord into three countries: Vietnam and the kingdoms of Cambodia and Laos. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarized Zone<br>
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1965 - US forces became involved in ground combat operations and at their peak they numbered more than 500,000<br>
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1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 966,000 and 3.8 million<br>
 
==Local Histories and Gazetteers==
 
==Local Histories and Gazetteers==
 
 
Research use: Supplement genealogies and official records for historical periods. Contain unique information on widows and wives not found elsewhere.  
 
Research use: Supplement genealogies and official records for historical periods. Contain unique information on widows and wives not found elsewhere.  
  

Revision as of 09:04, 10 April 2019

Vietnam Wiki Topics
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Beginning Research
Record Types
Vietnam Background
Local Research Resources

History[edit | edit source]

During the 3rd century BC, ancient Vietnamese people inhabited modern-day northern Vietnam and established the state of Âu Lạc. The independent state was annexed by Nam Việt in 179 BC. Nam Việt was subsequently annexed by the Han Empire and became part of Imperial China for over a millennium from 111 BC to 939 AD. An independent Vietnamese state emerged in 939 following Vietnamese victory in the battle of Bạch Đằng against the Southern Han. Successive Vietnamese imperial dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia until the Indochina Peninsula was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century.

French Indochina saw the Japanese occupation in 1940 amidst the escalation of World War II. Following Japanese defeat in 1945, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War. On 2 September 1945, Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared Vietnam's independence from France and therefrom established a provisional communist state. After nine years of war, the Vietnamese declared victory in the decisive battle of Điện Biên Phủ in 1954. The nation was thereafter divided into two rival states, communist North—the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and anti-communist South—the Republic of Vietnam. Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War with extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1973. The war ended with North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

North and South Vietnam were then reunified under a communist government in 1976. The newly established country remained impoverished and politically isolated until 1986 when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into the world economy. By 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries.
[1]

Timeline[edit | edit source]

1615 –1753 French traders engaged in trade in the area around Đàng Trong and actively spreading missionaries
1859 - 1885 Vietnam's kingdom independence was gradually eroded by France which was aided by the Spanish and large Catholic militias in a series of military conquests
1884 - The entire country had come under French rule
1887 - The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina
1940 -The war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina
1945 - The Vietnamese Famine was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam in French Indochina during World War II from October 1944 to late 1945. Between 400,000 and 2 million people are estimated to have starved to death during this time
1954 - French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accord into three countries: Vietnam and the kingdoms of Cambodia and Laos. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarized Zone
1965 - US forces became involved in ground combat operations and at their peak they numbered more than 500,000
1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 966,000 and 3.8 million

Local Histories and Gazetteers[edit | edit source]

Research use: Supplement genealogies and official records for historical periods. Contain unique information on widows and wives not found elsewhere.

Record Type: These are historical, geographic studies of specific villages and towns that include some biographical and genealogical information.

Time Period: 1500 to present.

Contents: Each history covers a specific city, county or prefecture. Topics covered include local legends, folklore, famous or influential families or clans, historical events, population, trade, education, transportation, local literary contributions, and biographies of prominent individuals, and mention of local officials, persons who lived long lives, and widows.

Location: Found scattered in libraries and archives in Vietnam and other countries. Population coverage: Include mainly important personalities and categories of individuals in a specific area; cover less than 5% of the population.

Reliability: Generally very reliable.[1]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named profile